Frank L. Christian

Learn More
The small heat shock protein HSP20 is known to be cardioprotective during times of stress and the mechanism underlying its protective abilities depends on its phosphorylation on Ser16 by PKA (protein kinase A). Although the external stimuli that trigger Ser16 phosphorylation have been well studied, the events that modulate spatial and temporal control of(More)
PKA (protein kinase A) is tethered to subcellular compartments by direct interaction of its regulatory subunits (RI or RII) with AKAPs (A kinase-anchoring proteins). AKAPs preferentially bind RII subunits via their RII-binding domains. RII-binding domains form structurally conserved amphipathic helices with unrelated sequences. Their binding affinities for(More)
The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death. The fundamental role that NF-κB plays in key physiological processes makes it(More)
Homeostatic control of oxygen availability allows cells to survive oxygen deprivation. Although the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is the main regulator of the hypoxic response, the upstream mechanisms required for its stabilization remain elusive. Here, we show that p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) undergoes hypoxia-induced(More)
Cyclic adenosine 3,'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is the archetypal second messenger produced at the membrane by adenylyl cyclase following activation of many different G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) types. Although discovered over fifty years ago, the notion that cAMP responses were compartmentalised was born in the 1980s. Since then, modern molecular(More)
Chronic challenge of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4A4 (PDE4A4) with certain PDE4 selective inhibitors causes it to reversibly form intracellular aggregates that are not membrane-encapsulated. These aggregates are neither stress granules (SGs) nor processing bodies (PBs) as they contain neither PABP-1 nor Dcp1a, respectively. However, the PDE4 inhibitor(More)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a central second messenger controlling a plethora of vital functions. Studies of cAMP dynamics in living cells have revealed markedly inhomogeneous concentrations of the second messenger in different compartments. Moreover, cAMP effectors such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cAMP-activated GTP-exchange(More)
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) tether protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to defined intracellular sites, thereby establishing compartmentalized cAMP signaling. AKAP-PKA interactions play key roles in various cellular processes, including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility. We discovered small molecules,(More)
V-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Raf-1) is a key activator of the ERK pathway and is a target for cross-regulation of this pathway by the cAMP signaling system. The cAMP-activated protein kinase, PKA, inhibits Raf-1 by phosphorylation on S259. Here, we show that the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-8A (PDE8A) associates with Raf-1 to(More)
A survey of PDE4 inhibitors reveals that some compounds trigger intracellular aggregation of PDE4A4 into accretion foci through association with the ubiquitin-binding scaffold protein p62 (SQSTM1). We show that this effect is driven by inhibitor occupancy of the catalytic pocket and stabilization of a "capped state" in which a sequence within the enzyme's(More)