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A critical point during mammalian pregnancy is the implantation of the blastocyst when the embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus. The autonomously developing preimplantation embryo then becomes dependent on the maternal environment for its continued development. Little is known about the regulation of implantation, except that a complex interaction(More)
Apoptosis can be triggered by members of the Bcl-2 protein family, such as Bim, that share only the BH3 domain with this family. Gene targeting in mice revealed important physiological roles for Bim. Lymphoid and myeloid cells accumulated, T cell development was perturbed, and most older mice accumulated plasma cells and succumbed to autoimmune kidney(More)
XIAP prevents apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting caspases, and this inhibition can be relieved by IAP antagonists, such as Smac/DIABLO. IAP antagonist compounds (IACs) have therefore been designed to inhibit XIAP to kill tumor cells. Because XIAP inhibits postmitochondrial caspases, caspase 8 inhibitors should not block killing by IACs. Instead, we show(More)
In Drosophila, disturbing the expression of the homeobox gene caudal causes a severe disruption in body segmentation and global body patterning. There are three mouse homologues of Drosophila caudal: Cdx1 (ref. 2), Cdx2 (ref. 3) and Cdx4 (ref. 4). We have generated a null mutation of murine Cdx2 by homologous recombination. Cdx2 homozygote null mutants die(More)
Members of the Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors have been implicated in the regulation of developmental processes and, in particular, axon guidance in the developing nervous system. The function of the EphA4 (Sek1) receptor was explored through creation of a null mutant mouse. Mice with a null mutation in the EphA4 gene are viable and fertile but(More)
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is essential for sodium homoeostasis in many epithelia. ENaC activity is required for lung fluid clearance in newborn animals and for maintenance of blood volume and blood pressure in adults. In vitro studies show that the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 ubiquitinates ENaC to regulate its cell surface expression. Here we show(More)
PURPOSE Photoreceptor ribbon synapses translate light-dependent changes of membrane potential into graded transmitter release via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) activity. Functional abnormalities (e.g., a reduced electroretinogram b-wave), arising from mutations of presynaptic proteins, such as Bassoon and the VDCCalpha1 subunit Cacna1f,(More)
Ca(2+) signaling plays a central role in cardiac contractility and adaptation to increased hemodynamic demand. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins. S100A1(-/-) mice have normal cardiac function under baseline conditions(More)
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), jointly referring to TNF alpha and TNF beta, is a central mediator of immune and inflammatory responses; its activities are mediated by two distinct receptors, TNFR1 (p55) and TNFR2 (p75) (reviewed in refs 1-3). The cytoplasmic domains of the TNFRs are unrelated, suggesting that they link to different intracellular signalling(More)
BACKGROUND Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is fundamental to animal development, immune function and cellular homeostasis. The phosphatidylserine receptor (Ptdsr) on phagocytes has been implicated in the recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells and in anti-inflammatory signaling. To determine the biological function of the phosphatidylserine receptor(More)