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BACKGROUND Selection for genetic testing of BRCA1/BRCA2 is an important area of healthcare. Although testing costs for mutational analysis are falling, costs in North America remain in excess of US$3000 (UK price can be 690 pounds). Guidelines in most countries use a 10-20% threshold of detecting a mutation in BRCA1/2 combined within a family before(More)
Background:There are relatively few articles addressing long-term follow-up in women with breast cancer at very young ages.Methods:We have updated and extended our population-based analysis of breast cancer diagnosed at the age ⩽30 years in North-west England to include an extra 15 patients with mutation testing in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53, with 115 of 288(More)
Overexpression and/or activity of c-Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase is associated with progression of several human epithelial cancers including breast cancer. c-Src activity in ‘pure’ ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was measured to assess whether this predicts recurrence and/or correlates with HER2 expression and other clinical parameters. Activated c-Src(More)
We present an empirical scaling law that models the increased energy required for launching a soliton into an optical system with sections of both normal and anomalous dispersion fiber. It is shown that the inclusion of periodic attenuation and amplification can be handled as separate problems, provided that the interval between optical amplifiers is(More)
Chomsky (1986) has claimed that the prima facie incompatibility between descriptive linguistics and semantic externalism proves that an externalist semantics is impossible. Although it is true that a strong form of externalism does not cohere with descriptive linguistics, sociolinguistic theory can unify the two approaches. The resulting two-level theory(More)
The proliferation rate (as assessed by Ki67 expression) and expression of oestrogen-regulated progesterone receptor (PR) was studied in normal post-menopausal breast epithelium. Normal breast epithelium from patients receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at the time of surgery containing either oestrogen alone (E2) or oestrogen and progesterone(More)
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is the cause of humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy and interacts with parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors. Breast cancer cells produce PTHrP in vitro and in vivo. The breast cancer cell line MCF-7, which products PTHrP and expresses PTHrP receptors, proliferates in response to PTHrP. The aim of these studies was(More)
1 Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 2 Molecular Pathology Unit and Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA; 3 Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 4 Department of Pathology,(More)