Frank K M Zaw

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OBJECTIVES There is growing interest in the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in neuropsychiatric disorders and there is some evidence that the HPA axis may be underfunctional in behaviorally disturbed children. However, co-morbidity is common in childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. Stimulant medication is widely used in the treatment(More)
We describe the clinical presentation, course, and treatment response of a 14-year-old boy with catatonic stupor. This patient, with a preexisting diagnosis of autism, displayed mutism, akinesia, and an extreme level of rigidity, waxy flexibility, posturing, including the psychological pillow, facial grimacing, and other involuntary movements of his upper(More)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been in psychiatric practice for well over half a century, but it continues to incite controversy. However, it is regarded amongst psychiatrists as a safe and effective treatment and at times even a lifesaver. It offers a fairly swift but a time-limited response, opening up opportunities for initiation of more longer(More)
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