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The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics on the condition of education in the United States; conduct and(More)
A serial pathway from a thalamic nucleus (DLM; the medial portion of the dorsolateral nucleus of the anterior thalamus) to a cortical region (lMAN; the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum) to a motor-cortical region (RA; the robust nucleus of the archistriatum) is necessary for vocal production during song learning in juvenile zebra(More)
The nucleus HVC (proper name) within the avian analog of mammal premotor cortex produces stereotyped instructions through the motor pathway leading to precise, learned vocalization by songbirds. Electrophysiological characterization of component HVC neurons is an important requirement in building a model to understand HVC function. The HVC contains three(More)
Studies of the developing nervous system led to the general view that growth factors promote neuronal survival in a "retrograde" manner. For example, release of NGF from postsynaptic peripheral targets followed by uptake and retrograde transport by presynaptic neurons provided a widely accepted conceptual framework for the action of neurotrophins. In(More)
Cannabinoids have been used for millennia through various preparations of Cannabis sativa. Despite this long history of use, the physiological significance of cannabinoid signaling in the vertebrate CNS is not well understood. High CB1 cannabinoid receptor densities in mammalian telencephalon and the results of behavioral studies suggest that cannabinoids(More)
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn vocal behavior during sensitive developmental periods, similar to the way in which human language is acquired. As adults, they recite the learned song pattern in a stereotyped manner. Previously, we demonstrated that central nervous system-associated cannabinoid receptors (CB1) are expressed in brain regions known(More)
The integration of two neural pathways generates learned song in zebra finches. The vocal motor pathway (VMP) is a direct connection between HVC (proper name) and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), whereas the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) comprises an indirect circuit from HVC to RA that traverses the basal ganglia. Partial ablation(More)
The songs of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) arise by an integration of activity from two neural pathways that emanate from the telencephalic nucleus HVC (proper name). One pathway descends directly from HVC to the vocal premotor nucleus RA (the robust nucleus of the arcopallium) whereas a second pathway descends from HVC into a basal ganglia(More)
The higher vocal center (HVC) of adult male canaries undergoes a seasonal change in volume that corresponds to seasonal modifications of vocal behavior: HVC is large when birds produce stereotyped song (spring) and is small when birds produce plastic song and add new song syllables into their vocal repertoires (fall). We reported previously that systemic(More)