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The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics on the condition of education in the United States; conduct and(More)
A serial pathway from a thalamic nucleus (DLM; the medial portion of the dorsolateral nucleus of the anterior thalamus) to a cortical region (lMAN; the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum) to a motor-cortical region (RA; the robust nucleus of the archistriatum) is necessary for vocal production during song learning in juvenile zebra(More)
The nucleus HVC (proper name) within the avian analog of mammal premotor cortex produces stereotyped instructions through the motor pathway leading to precise, learned vocalization by songbirds. Electrophysiological characterization of component HVC neurons is an important requirement in building a model to understand HVC function. The HVC contains three(More)
Studies of the developing nervous system led to the general view that growth factors promote neuronal survival in a "retrograde" manner. For example, release of NGF from postsynaptic peripheral targets followed by uptake and retrograde transport by presynaptic neurons provided a widely accepted conceptual framework for the action of neurotrophins. In(More)
The integration of two neural pathways generates learned song in zebra finches. The vocal motor pathway (VMP) is a direct connection between HVC (proper name) and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), whereas the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) comprises an indirect circuit from HVC to RA that traverses the basal ganglia. Partial ablation(More)
The higher vocal center (HVC) of adult male canaries undergoes a seasonal change in volume that corresponds to seasonal modifications of vocal behavior: HVC is large when birds produce stereotyped song (spring) and is small when birds produce plastic song and add new song syllables into their vocal repertoires (fall). We reported previously that systemic(More)
The songs of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) arise by an integration of activity from two neural pathways that emanate from the telencephalic nucleus HVC (proper name). One pathway descends directly from HVC to the vocal premotor nucleus RA (the robust nucleus of the arcopallium) whereas a second pathway descends from HVC into a basal ganglia(More)
A serial forebrain pathway in the songbird brain plays a critical role in vocal learning; Area X of the parolfactory lobe (X) projects to the medial portion of the dorsolateral nucleus of the anterior thalamus (DLM), which in turn projects to the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (IMAN). Lesions of this pathway in juvenile birds(More)
Many forms of learning, including songbird vocal learning, rely on the brain's ability to use pre-motor variation and sensory feedback to guide behavior toward a specific target or goal. In the vocal control system of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) the pre-motor mechanisms of vocal variation are thought to be vested primarily in a neural pathway that(More)