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Available filtration methods to concentrate waterborne viruses are either too costly for studies requiring large numbers of samples, limited to small sample volumes, or not very portable for routine field applications. Sodocalcic glass wool filtration is a cost-effective and easy-to-use method to retain viruses, but its efficiency and reliability are not(More)
BACKGROUND Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. OBJECTIVES We related quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 Wisconsin communities supplied by nondisinfected(More)
The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is(More)
We describe the protocol for an inexpensive and nondestructive optical reflectance assay for the measurement of biofilm formation. Reflectance data are obtained using an Ocean Optics (Dunedin, Florida) USB 2000 spectrometer with a polychromatic light source. A fiber optic cable is used both for illumination and collection, and Ocean Optics OOIBase32(More)
Like several other fishes in the pelagic community of the upper San Francisco Estuary, age-0 striped bass Morone saxatilis have shown a major decline based on a midwater trawl sampling program that has been conducted for over 40 years. We hypothesized that the apparent decline in age-0 striped bass might be partially attributable to a behavioral shift away(More)
By integrating a population dynamic model with models of contaminant/stressor fate and transport and biological organism movement, researchers can capture the impact of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on population dynamics, and ultimately develop and implement improved management decisions and policies
In previous work, we described a protocol for measuring biofilm formation on opaque and non-opaque surfaces using reflected light. In the present work, we used the reflectance assay to assess biofilm formation for 14 strains of Enterococcus and compared our results with those obtained using a Crystal Violet (CV) assay. In general, the results for the two(More)
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