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Contamination of food by Listeria monocytogenes is thought to occur most frequently in food-processing environments where cells persist due to their ability to attach to stainless steel and other surfaces. Once attached these cells may produce multicellular biofilms that are resistant to disinfection and from which cells can become detached and contaminate(More)
Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the environment lately have been acknowledged to constitute a health risk for humans and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Human and veterinary applications are the main sources of PhACs in the environment and the major pathways are excretion and discharge to the environment through sewage treatment plants(More)
The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is(More)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an important tool for pathogen detection, but historically, it has not been possible to accurately identify PCR products without sequencing, Southern blots, or dot-blots. Microarrays can be coupled with PCR where they serve as a set of parallel dot-blots to enhance product detection and identification. Microarrays are(More)
Available filtration methods to concentrate waterborne viruses are either too costly for studies requiring large numbers of samples, limited to small sample volumes, or not very portable for routine field applications. Sodocalcic glass wool filtration is a cost-effective and easy-to-use method to retain viruses, but its efficiency and reliability are not(More)
The relative concentration of pathogens in water samples collected from storm drains and adjacent surfaces was evaluated using established PCR-based protocols. Out of the 58 samples collected from 21 different storm drains, 22% were PCR positive for Escherichia coli ETEC, Salmonella, or adenovirus. The risk of swimming related illnesses associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. OBJECTIVES We related quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 Wisconsin communities supplied by nondisinfected(More)
The objective of this research was to interrogate and develop a better understanding for a process to achieve post-anoxic denitrification without exogenous carbon augmentation within enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Sequencing batch reactors fed real wastewater and seeded with mixed microbial consortia were operated under variable(More)
Biologically derived polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) represent a potentially "sustainable" replacement to fossil-fuel-based thermoplastics. However, current commercial practices that produce PHA with pure microbial cultures grown on renewable, but refined, feedstocks (i.e., glucose) under sterile conditions do not represent a sustainable(More)
The diffusion of a chemical disinfectant into wastewater particles may be viewed as a serial two-step process involving transport through a macroporous network of pathways to micropores that lead into dense cellular regions. Previous research reveals that ultraviolet (UV) light penetration into wastewater particles is limited primarily to macropores,(More)