Mark A. Borchardt1
Elisabetta Lambertini1
Jason D Peppin1
1Mark A. Borchardt
1Elisabetta Lambertini
1Jason D Peppin
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We describe the protocol for an inexpensive and nondestructive optical reflectance assay for the measurement of biofilm formation. Reflectance data are obtained using an Ocean Optics (Dunedin, Florida) USB 2000 spectrometer with a polychromatic light source. A fiber optic cable is used both for illumination and collection, and Ocean Optics OOIBase32(More)
BACKGROUND Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. OBJECTIVES We related quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 Wisconsin communities supplied by nondisinfected(More)
he impact of human activities on our own and other populations on the planet is making news at an alarming pace. Global warming, ocean and freshwater contamination and acidification, deforestation , habitat destruction and incursion, and a burgeoning human population are associated with a complete spectrum of shifts in population dynamics. Scientists have(More)
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