Frank J . E . Falco

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OBJECTIVE To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain. METHODOLOGY Systematic assessment of the literature. EVIDENCE I. Lumbar Spine • The evidence for accuracy of diagnostic selective nerve root blocks is limited; whereas for lumbar provocation discography,(More)
BACKGROUND Lumbar facet joints have been implicated as the source of chronic pain in 15% to 45% of patients with chronic low back pain. Various therapeutic techniques including intraarticular injections, medial branch blocks, and radiofrequency neurotomy of lumbar facet joint nerves have been described in the alleviation of chronic low back pain of facet(More)
BACKGROUND Comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in the management of chronic spinal pain are described here to provide recommendations for clinicians. OBJECTIVE To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain. DESIGN Systematic(More)
BACKGROUND Intervertebral disc herniation, spinal stenosis, intervertebral disc degeneration without disc herniation, and post lumbar surgery syndrome are the most common diagnoses of chronic persistent low back and lower extremity symptoms, resulting in significant economic, societal, and health care impact. Epidural injections are one of the most commonly(More)
BACKGROUND The estimated prevalence of lumbar radiculopathy has been described as 9.8 per 1,000 cases of low back pain. There are various surgical and nonsurgical modalities for treating lumbar disc herniation or radicular pain, including epidural injections. Epidural injection administration routes include transforaminal, interlaminar, and caudal(More)
BACKGROUND Among the many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions available for the management of chronic pain, epidural steroid injections are one of the most commonly used modalities. The explosive growth of this technique is relevant in light of the high cost of health care in the United States and abroad, the previous literature assessing the(More)
BACKGROUND Relief of regional, non-appendicular pain, particularly low back pain, through spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has proven challenging. Recently, peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS), also known as peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS) depending on the stimulation area, has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of well-localized, small areas of(More)
BACKGROUND Lumbar disc prolapse, protrusion, and extrusion account for less than 5% of all low back problems, but are the most common causes of nerve root pain and surgical interventions. The typical rationale for traditional surgery is an effort to provide more rapid relief of pain and disability. It should be noted that the majority of patients will(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, transforaminal epidural injections have emerged as an alternative to interlaminar and caudal epidural steroid injections. The rationale for utilizing transforaminal epidural injections has been described for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections in managing(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic mid back and upper back pain caused by thoracic facet joints has been reported in 34% to 48% of the patients based on the responses to controlled diagnostic blocks. Systematic reviews have established moderate evidence for controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks of thoracic facet joints in the diagnosis of mid back and upper back(More)