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Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins form polarized cortical domains that govern polarity of external structures such as hairs and cilia in both vertebrate and invertebrate epithelia. The mechanisms that globally orient planar polarity are not understood, and are investigated here in the Drosophila wing using a combination of experiment and theory. Planar(More)
BACKGROUND Epithelial junctional networks assume packing geometries characterized by different cell shapes, neighbor number distributions and areas. The development of specific packing geometries is tightly controlled; in the Drosophila wing epithelium, cells convert from an irregular to a hexagonal array shortly before hair formation. Packing geometry is(More)
Active phenomena which involve force generation and motion play a key role in a number of phenomena in living cells such as cell motility, muscle contraction and the active transport of material and organelles. Here we discuss mechanical oscillations generated by active systems in cells. Examples are oscillatory regimes in muscles, the periodic beating of(More)
Developing cells acquire positional information by reading the graded distribution of morphogens. In Drosophila, the Dpp morphogen forms a long-range concentration gradient by spreading from a restricted source in the developing wing. It has been assumed that Dpp spreads by extracellular diffusion. Under this assumption, the main role of endocytosis in(More)
Asymmetric cell divisions are essential for the development of multicellular organisms. To proceed, they require an initially symmetric cell to polarize. In Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, anteroposterior polarization is facilitated by a large-scale flow of the actomyosin cortex, which directs the asymmetry of the first mitotic division. Cortical flows(More)
  • Liedewij Laan, Nenad Pavin, Julien Husson, Guillaume Romet-Lemonne, Martijn van Duijn, Magdalena Preciado López +4 others
  • 2012
Dynein at the cortex contributes to microtubule-based positioning processes such as spindle positioning during embryonic cell division and centrosome positioning during fibroblast migration. To investigate how cortical dynein interacts with microtubule ends to generate force and how this functional association impacts positioning, we have reconstituted the(More)
  • Katharina P. Landsberg, Reza Farhadifar, Jonas Ranft, Daiki Umetsu, Thomas J. Widmann, Thomas Bittig +3 others
  • 2009
Subdividing proliferating tissues into compartments is an evolutionarily conserved strategy of animal development [1-6]. Signals across boundaries between compartments can result in local expression of secreted proteins organizing growth and patterning of tissues [1-6]. Sharp and straight interfaces between compartments are crucial for stabilizing the(More)
BACKGROUND Asymmetric division of the C. elegans zygote is due to the posterior-directed movement of the mitotic spindle during metaphase and anaphase. During this movement along the anterior-posterior axis, the spindle oscillates transversely. These motions are thought to be driven by a force-generating complex-possibly containing the motor protein(More)
Just as the size of an organism is carefully controlled, the size of intracellular structures must also be regulated. The mitotic spindle is a supramolecular machine that generates the forces which separate sister chromatids during mitosis. Although spindles show little size variation between cells of the same type, spindle length can vary at least 10-fold(More)