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Recent evidence suggests that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) on any single day is determined by a combination of trait and state factors; however, the nature of such state associations remains largely unexplored. In this study we examined day-to-day changes in the CAR and their covariance with simultaneous changes in sleep-related variables, alcohol(More)
A 12-hour diurnal profile of salivary free cortisol was measured in healthy adults (n=40) on two consecutive days. Samples were collected at timed intervals synchronised to awakening. The mean profile is characterised by a marked increase in cortisol concentration following awakening, peaking after about 30 min, and a subsequent decline over the remainder(More)
In most healthy people morning awakening is associated with a burst of cortisol secretion: the cortisol awakening response (CAR). It is argued that the CAR is subject to a range physiological regulatory influences that facilitate this rapid increase in cortisol secretion. Evidence is presented for reduced adrenal sensitivity to rising levels of ACTH in the(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can activate discrete areas of the cerebral cortex through the intact skull of healthy conscious volunteers. A magnetic coil generates a brief and focused magnetic field that penetrates the skull to activate the specific area of cerebral cortex beneath. This non-invasive procedure is painless, well tolerated by(More)
Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) measured in saliva, an index of mucosal immunity, has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to psychological variables. Chronic stress is downregulatory whereas an acute psychological challenge induces mobilisation. We examined whether an acute manipulation of mood to induce negative hedonic tone would be downregulatory, as(More)
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a crucial point of reference within the healthy cortisol circadian rhythm, with cortisol secretion typically peaking between 30 and 45 min post awakening. This chapter reviews the history of investigation into the CAR and highlights evidence that its regulation is relatively distinct from cortisol secretion across(More)
The effects of night-time exposure to traffic noise (TN) or low frequency noise (LFN) on the cortisol awakening response and subjective sleep quality were determined. Twelve male subjects slept for five consecutive nights in a noise-sleep laboratory. After one night of acclimatisation and one reference night, subjects were exposed to either TN (35dB L(Aeq),(More)
Salivary free cortisol concentration, rated stress and annoyance were determined in 32 subjects before, during and after carrying out a battery of performance tasks for 2 hours during exposure to ventilation noise, with dominant low frequencies (low frequency noise) or a flat frequency spectrum (reference noise). Both noises had a level of 40 dBA. All(More)
When examining the diurnal profile of the hormone cortisol in children and adolescents developmental issues are particularly relevant. Previous findings regarding relationships between cortisol secretory activity and reproductive (pubertal) maturation lack clarity and may reflect methodological inconsistencies between studies. This study examined the(More)
Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and cardiovascular reactions to mental arithmetic and cold pressor tasks were recorded in 16 healthy young men on two sessions, 4 weeks apart. Both tasks elicited significant increases in sIgA secretion rate, reflecting increases in both salivary volume and sIgA concentration. Whereas mental arithmetic elicited a(More)