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The awakening cortisol response (ACR) is a discrete and distinctive part of the cortisol circadian cycle. In healthy adults salivary free cortisol concentrations increase by between 50 and 160% in the first 30 min immediately post-awakening (approximate average increase of 9 nmol/l, range 4-15 nmol/l, estimated to be equivalent to about three secretory(More)
In most healthy people morning awakening is associated with a burst of cortisol secretion: the cortisol awakening response (CAR). It is argued that the CAR is subject to a range physiological regulatory influences that facilitate this rapid increase in cortisol secretion. Evidence is presented for reduced adrenal sensitivity to rising levels of ACTH in the(More)
The level of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) measured in saliva is downregulated during periods of chronic stress. In contrast, the response to an acute stress challenge is a transient increase. The process of awakening is associated with stress neuroendocrine activation characterised by increases in salivary cortisol. We therefore examined if this period(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) on any single day is determined by a combination of trait and state factors; however, the nature of such state associations remains largely unexplored. In this study we examined day-to-day changes in the CAR and their covariance with simultaneous changes in sleep-related variables, alcohol(More)
When examining the diurnal profile of the hormone cortisol in children and adolescents developmental issues are particularly relevant. Previous findings regarding relationships between cortisol secretory activity and reproductive (pubertal) maturation lack clarity and may reflect methodological inconsistencies between studies. This study examined the(More)
Bright light exposure after awakening has been shown to elevate cortisol levels in healthy participants. The present study examined the effect of dawn simulation (a treatment for seasonal affective disorder) on the cortisol response to awakening and mood. Twelve healthy participants were supplied with a dawn simulator (The Natural Alarm Clock, Outside In,(More)
A 12-hour diurnal profile of salivary free cortisol was measured in healthy adults (n=40) on two consecutive days. Samples were collected at timed intervals synchronised to awakening. The mean profile is characterised by a marked increase in cortisol concentration following awakening, peaking after about 30 min, and a subsequent decline over the remainder(More)
Adrenocortical activity can be assessed by measurement of free cortisol in saliva. Cortisol status has important health implications in both physical and psychological terms. Assessment of cortisol status is complicated by the marked diurnal cortisol cycle. This cycle is characterised by an increase in secretory activity following awakening to achieve the(More)
Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and cardiovascular reactions to mental arithmetic and cold pressor tasks were recorded in 16 healthy young men on two sessions, 4 weeks apart. Both tasks elicited significant increases in sIgA secretion rate, reflecting increases in both salivary volume and sIgA concentration. Whereas mental arithmetic elicited a(More)
The steroid hormones, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress-neuroendocrine axis. The diurnal pattern of cortisol secretory activity has been well characterised. Various aspects of this pattern have been related to time of awakening, light exposure, psychological(More)