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Recent evidence suggests that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) on any single day is determined by a combination of trait and state factors; however, the nature of such state associations remains largely unexplored. In this study we examined day-to-day changes in the CAR and their covariance with simultaneous changes in sleep-related variables, alcohol(More)
When examining the diurnal profile of the hormone cortisol in children and adolescents developmental issues are particularly relevant. Previous findings regarding relationships between cortisol secretory activity and reproductive (pubertal) maturation lack clarity and may reflect methodological inconsistencies between studies. This study examined the(More)
A 12-hour diurnal profile of salivary free cortisol was measured in healthy adults (n=40) on two consecutive days. Samples were collected at timed intervals synchronised to awakening. The mean profile is characterised by a marked increase in cortisol concentration following awakening, peaking after about 30 min, and a subsequent decline over the remainder(More)
In most healthy people morning awakening is associated with a burst of cortisol secretion: the cortisol awakening response (CAR). It is argued that the CAR is subject to a range physiological regulatory influences that facilitate this rapid increase in cortisol secretion. Evidence is presented for reduced adrenal sensitivity to rising levels of ACTH in the(More)
Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and cardiovascular reactions to mental arithmetic and cold pressor tasks were recorded in 16 healthy young men on two sessions, 4 weeks apart. Both tasks elicited significant increases in sIgA secretion rate, reflecting increases in both salivary volume and sIgA concentration. Whereas mental arithmetic elicited a(More)
The level of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) measured in saliva is downregulated during periods of chronic stress. In contrast, the response to an acute stress challenge is a transient increase. The process of awakening is associated with stress neuroendocrine activation characterised by increases in salivary cortisol. We therefore examined if this period(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can activate discrete areas of the cerebral cortex through the intact skull of healthy conscious volunteers. A magnetic coil generates a brief and focused magnetic field that penetrates the skull to activate the specific area of cerebral cortex beneath. This non-invasive procedure is painless, well tolerated by(More)
Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) measured in saliva, an index of mucosal immunity, has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to psychological variables. Chronic stress is downregulatory whereas an acute psychological challenge induces mobilisation. We examined whether an acute manipulation of mood to induce negative hedonic tone would be downregulatory, as(More)
Associations between cognitive performance and cortisol have variously been reported for measures of both cortisol level and change, and for some domains of cognitive functioning more than others. In this study, associations between cortisol secretion measures and cognitive performance were examined in 50 healthy older people (mean age 74 years; 34 F /16(More)
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a crucial point of reference within the healthy cortisol circadian rhythm, with cortisol secretion typically peaking between 30 and 45 min post awakening. This chapter reviews the history of investigation into the CAR and highlights evidence that its regulation is relatively distinct from cortisol secretion across(More)