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In most healthy people morning awakening is associated with a burst of cortisol secretion: the cortisol awakening response (CAR). It is argued that the CAR is subject to a range physiological regulatory influences that facilitate this rapid increase in cortisol secretion. Evidence is presented for reduced adrenal sensitivity to rising levels of ACTH in the(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) on any single day is determined by a combination of trait and state factors; however, the nature of such state associations remains largely unexplored. In this study we examined day-to-day changes in the CAR and their covariance with simultaneous changes in sleep-related variables, alcohol(More)
The current study investigated intra-individual associations between psychosocial state variables and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in a detailed case study of a 27-year-old healthy male (TS) carried out over 50 measurement days, occurring at 3-day intervals. Quantitative diaries capturing psychosocial states were filled out on the evening before(More)
A 12-hour diurnal profile of salivary free cortisol was measured in healthy adults (n=40) on two consecutive days. Samples were collected at timed intervals synchronised to awakening. The mean profile is characterised by a marked increase in cortisol concentration following awakening, peaking after about 30 min, and a subsequent decline over the remainder(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can activate discrete areas of the cerebral cortex through the intact skull of healthy conscious volunteers. A magnetic coil generates a brief and focused magnetic field that penetrates the skull to activate the specific area of cerebral cortex beneath. This non-invasive procedure is painless, well tolerated by(More)
The level of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) measured in saliva is downregulated during periods of chronic stress. In contrast, the response to an acute stress challenge is a transient increase. The process of awakening is associated with stress neuroendocrine activation characterised by increases in salivary cortisol. We therefore examined if this period(More)
Bright light exposure after awakening has been shown to elevate cortisol levels in healthy participants. The present study examined the effect of dawn simulation (a treatment for seasonal affective disorder) on the cortisol response to awakening and mood. Twelve healthy participants were supplied with a dawn simulator (The Natural Alarm Clock, Outside In,(More)
Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) measured in saliva, an index of mucosal immunity, has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to psychological variables. Chronic stress is downregulatory whereas an acute psychological challenge induces mobilisation. We examined whether an acute manipulation of mood to induce negative hedonic tone would be downregulatory, as(More)
The pronounced rise in cortisol following awakening holds promise as a bio-marker of variables in the psychosocial domain, but its investigation also presents methodological challenges, which we attempted to address in this study. Forty-eight healthy, young students participated and were instructed to collect saliva 0, 15, 30 and 45 min post awakening on(More)
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a crucial point of reference within the healthy cortisol circadian rhythm, with cortisol secretion typically peaking between 30 and 45 min post awakening. This chapter reviews the history of investigation into the CAR and highlights evidence that its regulation is relatively distinct from cortisol secretion across(More)