Frank Henkler

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Using fluorescent variants of Fas and FasL, we show that membrane FasL and Fas form supramolecular clusters that are of flexible shape, but nevertheless stable and persistent. Membrane FasL-induced Fas clusters were formed in caspase-8- or FADD-deficient cells or when a cytoplasmic deletion mutant of Fas was used suggesting that cluster formation is(More)
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is metabolized into a complex pattern of BP derivatives, among which the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is formed to certain extents. Skin is frequently in contact with PAHs and data on the metabolic capacity of skin tissue toward these compounds are inconclusive. We(More)
In addition to a wide range of adverse effects on human health, toxic metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel can also promote carcinogenesis. The toxicological properties of these metals are partly related to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce DNA damage and trigger redox-dependent transcription factors. The precise mechanisms(More)
Electronic (e-)cigarettes have emerged in recent years as putative alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. These products do not contain typical carcinogens that are present in tobacco smoke, due to the lack of combustion. However, besides nicotine, hazards can also arise from other constituents of liquids, such as solvents, flavors, additives and(More)
regard to allergenic flavors, contaminants as well as additives that may encompass pharmacologically active compounds (Hadwiger et al. 2010). A proper risk assessment also requires further caution as users may have the possibility to modify commercial liquids when using refillable cartridges. The issue of e-cigarettes serves as very good example of how the(More)
In this study, we have analysed the apoptotic effects of the ubiquitous environmental toxin benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in HaCaT cells and human keratinocytes. Although prolonged exposure to BP was not cytotoxic on its own, a strong enhancement of CD95 (Fas)-mediated apoptosis was observed with BP at concentrations activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).(More)
In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) shuttles continuously between cytoplasm and nucleus, unless ligand-binding triggers association with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and subsequent binding to cognate DNA motifs. We have now identified Val 647 as mandatory residue for export from the nucleus and AHR-function. This residue prevents inactivation of the(More)
ingredients is highly desirable, since it would reduce the likelihood of using poorly characterized compounds that might pose additional toxicological risks, especially when being inhaled. An authorization system can also prevent proliferation of innovative products, possibly adapted to new-fashioned expectations of next-generation smokers. Conversely, the(More)