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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential regulator of vascularization. It is expressed as several splice variants; the major forms contain 120 amino acids, 164 amino acids, and 188 amino acids. We utilized transformed cells nullizygous for VEGF to specifically express each of these isoforms in isolation, in order to determine the role of(More)
A cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck)(More)
Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched(More)
The hypoxic tumor microenvironment has been shown to contribute to genetic instability. As one possible mechanism for this effect, we report that expression of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene Mlh1 is specifically reduced in mammalian cells under hypoxia, whereas expression of other MMR genes, including Msh2, Msh6, and Pms2, is not altered at the mRNA(More)
Psoralens (5-MOP and 8-MOP), a class of naturally occurring compounds, in combination with ultraviolect light are potent modulators of epidermal cell growth and differentiation. For a long time, photo-chemotherapy has been used in the treatment of psoriasis where it can reduce the number of cycling keratinocytes and decrease the IGF-1 receptors. However,(More)
Several events of insertional mutagenesis in pre-clinical and clinical gene therapy studies have created intense interest in assessing the genomic insertion profiles of gene therapy vectors. For the construction of such profiles, vector-flanking sequences detected by inverse PCR, linear amplification-mediated-PCR or ligation-mediated-PCR need to be mapped(More)
OBJECTIVE Increasing use of retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer created intense interest to characterize vector integrations on the genomic level. Techniques to determine insertion sites, mainly based on time-consuming manual data processing, are commonly applied. Since a high variability in processing methods hampers further data comparison, there is(More)
PURPOSE To estimate the risk of undertreatment in hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT). METHODS Eight hundred and fifty six metastases were contoured together with the hippocampi in cranial MRIs of 100 patients. For each metastasis, the distance to the closest hippocampus was calculated. Treatment plans for 10 patients were calculated(More)
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB(More)
Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint(More)