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Eukaryotic transcription can be regulated over tens or even hundreds of kilobases. We show that such long-range gene regulation in vivo involves spatial interactions between transcriptional elements, with intervening chromatin looping out. The spatial organization of a 200 kb region spanning the murine beta-globin locus was analyzed in expressing erythroid(More)
The precise time of appearance of the first hematopoietic stem cell activity in the developing mouse embryo is unknown. Recently the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region of the developing mouse embryo has been shown to possess hematopoietic colony-forming activity (CFU-S) in irradiated recipient mice. To determine whether the mouse embryo possesses definitive(More)
The transcription factor Gata-3 is a defining marker of the 'luminal' subtypes of breast cancer. To gain insight into the role of Gata-3 in breast epithelial development and oncogenesis, we have explored its normal function within the mammary gland by conditionally deleting Gata-3 at different stages of development. We report that Gata-3 has essential roles(More)
Several microtubule binding proteins, including CLIP-170 (cytoplasmic linker protein-170), CLIP-115, and EB1 (end-binding protein 1), have been shown to associate specifically with the ends of growing microtubules in non-neuronal cells, thereby regulating microtubule dynamics and the binding of microtubules to protein complexes, organelles, and membranes.(More)
CLIP-associating protein (CLASP) 1 and CLASP2 are mammalian microtubule (MT) plus-end binding proteins, which associate with CLIP-170 and CLIP-115. Using RNA interference in HeLa cells, we show that the two CLASPs play redundant roles in regulating the density, length distribution and stability of interphase MTs. In HeLa cells, both CLASPs concentrate on(More)
The gene coding for the murine transcription factor GATA6 was inactivated by insertion of a beta-galactosidase marker gene. The analysis of heterozygote GATA6/lacZ mice shows two inductions of GATA6 expression early in development. It is first expressed at the blastocyst stage in part of the inner mass and in the trophectoderm. The second wave of expression(More)
In somatic cells of female placental mammals, one X chromosome is inactivated to minimize sex-related dosage differences of X-encoded genes. Random X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the embryo is a stochastic process, in which each X has an independent probability to initiate XCI, triggered by the nuclear concentration of one or more X-encoded(More)
CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 are cytoplasmic linker proteins that associate specifically with the ends of growing microtubules and may act as anti-catastrophe factors. Here, we have isolated two CLIP-associated proteins (CLASPs), which are homologous to the Drosophila Orbit/Mast microtubule-associated protein. CLASPs bind CLIPs and microtubules, colocalize with(More)
Cytoplasmic linker protein (CLIP)-170, CLIP-115, and the dynactin subunit p150(Glued) are structurally related proteins, which associate specifically with the ends of growing microtubules (MTs). Here, we show that down-regulation of CLIP-170 by RNA interference results in a strongly reduced accumulation of dynactin at the MT tips. The NH(2) terminus of(More)
Patterning the vertebrate ear requires the coordinated expression of genes that are involved in morphogenesis, neurogenesis, and hair cell formation. The zinc finger gene GATA-3 is expressed both in the inner ear and in afferent and efferent auditory neurons. Specifically, GATA-3 is expressed in a population of neurons in rhombomere 4 that extend their(More)