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Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have few or no symptoms. SVD frequently coexists with(More)
It has often been reported that, in the presence of static reference stimuli, briefly presented visual targets are perceived as being closer to the fixation point than they actually are. The first purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the same phenomenon can be demonstrated in a situation without static reference stimuli. Experiment 1,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are frequently found on magnetic resonance imaging scans in both cognitively intact and demented elderly persons. Vascular risk factors, especially hypertension, are related to their presence. However, not every person with vascular risk factors has WMLs, which suggests interaction with other(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the influence of poststroke epilepsy on long-term functional outcome in young stroke survivors. METHODS This study is a prospective cohort study among 537 stroke survivors with a first-ever TIA, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke, aged 18 to 50 years. After a mean follow-up of 9.8 years (SD 8.4), we performed(More)
Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in white matter that may appear normal on brain imaging.(More)
The pathophysiology of episodic memory dysfunction after infarction is not completely understood. It has been suggested that infarctions located anywhere in the brain can induce widespread effects causing disruption of functional networks of the cortical regions. The default mode network, which includes the medial temporal lobe, is a functional network that(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a transient ischemic attack (TIA), ischemic stroke (IS) or(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We compared among young patients with ischemic stroke the distribution of vascular risk factors among sex, age groups, and 3 distinct geographic regions in Europe. METHODS We included patients with first-ever ischemic stroke aged 15 to 49 years from existing hospital- or population-based prospective or consecutive young stroke(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and hippocampal atrophy are related to verbal memory failures and may ultimately result in Alzheimer's disease. However, verbal memory failures are often present before structural changes on conventional MRI appear. Changes in microstructural integrity of the hippocampus, which cannot be detected with(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions (WML) and lacunar infarcts, is associated with gait disturbances, not all individuals with small vessel disease have these disturbances. Identical-appearing WML on MRI could reflect different degrees of microstructural integrity. Moreover, conventional MRI does not(More)