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Data Set Used
To investigate bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in Belgium, we conducted a virologic and serologic survey on 2,416 free-ranging cervids during 2005-2008. Infection emerged in 2006 and spread over the study area in red deer, but not in roe deer.
In 2011, a novel Orthobunyavirus was identified in cattle and sheep in Germany and The Netherlands. This virus was named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Later, presence of the virus was confirmed using real time RT-PCR in cases of congenital malformations of bovines and ovines in several European countries, including Belgium. In the absence of specific… (More)
BACKGROUND During a wildlife screening program for avian influenza A viruses (AIV) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) in Belgium, we isolated two hemagglutinating agents from pools of cloacal swabs of wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) caught in a single sampling site at two different times. AIV and APMV1 were excluded using hemagglutination inhibition (HI)… (More)
BACKGROUND In northern Europe, bluetongue (BT) caused by the BT virus (BTV), serotype 8, was first notified in August 2006 and numerous ruminant herds were affected in 2007 and 2008. However, the origin and the time and place of the original introduction have not yet been determined. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Four retrospective epidemiological… (More)
Nine influenza viruses isolated from gulls and shorebirds in Belgium (2008-2010), including H3N8, H5N2, H6N1, H11N9, H13N6, H13N8, and H16N3 subtypes, were targeted using random amplification and next-generation sequencing. The gene segments of these viruses segregated into three phylogeographic lineage types: (1) segments circulating in waterfowl in… (More)
The precision of subtyping assays is a matter of importance and debate for epidemiologic and, recently, forensic investigations. Strain identity is commonly used to infer a common source even when spatial and temporal data are not congruent. Moreover, the defi nition of a strain is somewhat unclear and relies on analytical methods that vary widely.… (More)
In the light of increasing evidence that plant growth and development depend on signals perceived in distinct cell types where hormonal inputs are transformed into orchestrated responses triggering a plethora of physiological processes, we reflect on the case of ethylene signaling. Experimental approaches to address cell type-specificity of the ethylene… (More)
Bluetongue has emerged recently in Belgium. A bluetongue virus strain was isolated and characterized as serotype 8. Two new real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs) that amplified 2 different segments of bluetongue virus detected this exotic strain. These 2 RT-qPCRs detected infection earlier than a competitive ELISA for antibody… (More)
Sequence Independent Single Primer Amplification is one of the most widely used random amplification approaches in virology for sequencing template preparation. This technique relies on oligonucleotides consisting of a 3' random part used to prime complementary DNA synthesis and a 5' defined tag sequence for subsequent amplification. Recently, this… (More)
The complete and annotated coding sequence and partial noncoding sequence of an Usutu virus genome were sequenced from RNA extracted from a clinical brain tissue sample obtained from a common hill myna (Gracula religiosa), demonstrating close homology with Usutu viruses circulating in Europe.