The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we report one of the first milestones of this project, the… (More)
To investigate bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in Belgium, we conducted a virologic and serologic survey on 2,416 free-ranging cervids during 2005-2008. Infection emerged in 2006 and spread over the study area in red deer, but not in roe deer.
In 2011, a novel Orthobunyavirus was identified in cattle and sheep in Germany and The Netherlands. This virus was named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Later, presence of the virus was confirmed using real time RT-PCR in cases of congenital malformations of bovines and ovines in several European countries, including Belgium. In the absence of specific… (More)
BACKGROUND In northern Europe, bluetongue (BT) caused by the BT virus (BTV), serotype 8, was first notified in August 2006 and numerous ruminant herds were affected in 2007 and 2008. However, the origin and the time and place of the original introduction have not yet been determined. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Four retrospective epidemiological… (More)
Nine influenza viruses isolated from gulls and shorebirds in Belgium (2008-2010), including H3N8, H5N2, H6N1, H11N9, H13N6, H13N8, and H16N3 subtypes, were targeted using random amplification and next-generation sequencing. The gene segments of these viruses segregated into three phylogeographic lineage types: (1) segments circulating in waterfowl in… (More)
The precision of subtyping assays is a matter of importance and debate for epidemiologic and, recently, forensic investigations. Strain identity is commonly used to infer a common source even when spatial and temporal data are not congruent. Moreover, the defi nition of a strain is somewhat unclear and relies on analytical methods that vary widely.… (More)
Arabidopsis thaliana has a relatively small genome of approximately 130 Mb containing about 10% repetitive DNA. Genome sequencing studies reveal a gene-rich genome, predicted to contain approximately 25000 genes spaced on average every 4.5 kb. Between 10 to 20% of the predicted genes occur as clusters of related genes, indicating that local sequence… (More)
Bluetongue has emerged recently in Belgium. A bluetongue virus strain was isolated and characterized as serotype 8. Two new real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs) that amplified 2 different segments of bluetongue virus detected this exotic strain. These 2 RT-qPCRs detected infection earlier than a competitive ELISA for antibody… (More)
Sequence Independent Single Primer Amplification is one of the most widely used random amplification approaches in virology for sequencing template preparation. This technique relies on oligonucleotides consisting of a 3' random part used to prime complementary DNA synthesis and a 5' defined tag sequence for subsequent amplification. Recently, this… (More)
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease in pigs. PRV strains are also used as model organisms for the study of alphaherpesvirus biology or for neuronal pathway studies. We present here the complete genome of the virulent wild-type PRV reference strain NIA3, determined by single-molecule real-time sequencing.