Frank E. French

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The genus Spiroplasma (helical mollicutes: Bacteria: Firmicutes: Mollicutes: Entomoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae) is associated primarily with insects. The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster (sensu Weisburg et al. 1989 and Johansson and Pettersson 2002) is a group of mollicutes that includes the type species - Mycoplasma mycoides - of Mycoplasmatales,(More)
Twenty-one triply cloned spiroplasma strains from the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, all isolated from tabanid (Diptera:Tabanidae) flies or serologically related to strains from tabanids, were compared reciprocally by spiroplasma deformation (DF) and metabolism inhibition (MI) serological tests. Many of the strains were also tested against 28(More)
Significant changes have been made in the systematics of the genus Spiroplasma (class Mollicutes) since it was expanded by revision in 1987 to include 23 groups and eight sub-groups. Since that time, two additional spiroplasmas have been assigned group numbers and species names. More recently, specific epithets have been assigned to nine previously(More)
Surface serology is an important determinant in Spiroplasma systematics. Reciprocal antigen/antibody reactions between spiroplasmas and individual antisera delineate the 38 described groups and species. However, reciprocal serology is impractical for large-scale studies. This report describes a successful, streamlined polyvalent screening approach used to(More)
More than 1,000 Spiroplasma isolates have been obtained from horse flies and deer flies (Diptera:Tabanidae) in the United States and Canada. However, the spiroplasma biota of Central America is poorly known. In August of 1995 and 1998, 13 isolates were obtained in 14 attempts from horse flies of a single species, Poeciloderas quadripunctatus, taken in the(More)
Traditionally, isolation, maintenance, and testing of Spiroplasma species (Mollicutes: Entomoplasmatales) from horse flies (Tabanus spp.) and deer flies (Chrysops spp.) (Diptera: Tabanidae) have been accomplished in the complex M1D medium. A relatively inexpensive, simplified medium for tabanid spiroplasmas could expedite procedures that require large(More)
Spiroplasma sp. strain EA-1(T) (T = type strain) (subgroup VIII-1), which was isolated from the syrphid fly Eristalis arbustorum, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasma species, groups, and subgroups, The cells of this strain, as revealed by dark-field light microscopy, were short, helical, and motile. An electron microscopic examination revealed(More)
Spiroplasma strain EC-1T (T = type strain), which was isolated from the gut of a lampyrid beetle (Ellychnia corrusca) in Maryland, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasma species and groups. Similar strains were obtained from other E. corrusca specimens, and, later, numerous isolates of similar or partially related strains were obtained from(More)