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BACKGROUND In areas of endemic transmission, malaria in pregnancy is associated with severe maternal anaemia and low-birthweight babies. We studied the efficacy of intermittent treatment doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in preventing malaria and severe anaemia in pregnancy in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial among primigravid women living in(More)
BACKGROUND In areas of endemic transmission, malaria in pregnancy is associated with severe maternal anaemia and low birthweight babies. The prevalence of infection is highest in primigravidae (PG), and hence control efforts are usually geared towards this high risk group. Using a sensitive measure of placental infection, we investigated the relationship(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons may be important, unrecognized transmitters of measles virus, thwarting eradication efforts. We reviewed the published English-language literature on measles and measles immunization in HIV-infected persons to investigate the clinical features of measles, the responses to measles immunization, and the(More)
Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine(More)
A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect measles virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, urine, and nasopharyngeal specimens from Zambian children during hospitalization and approximately 1-2 months after discharge. Of 47 children, 29 (61.7%) had prolonged measles virus shedding, as defined by detection of measles(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli among healthy children aged 6-72 months in Camiri town and a rural village, Javillo, in south-eastern Bolivia. METHOD A community-based survey: stool samples were obtained from 296 healthy children selected by modified cluster sampling in Camiri and all 25(More)
Childhood rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) with multiple disabilities. Reduction of transmission via universal vaccination can prevent CRS, but inadequate coverage may increase CRS numbers by increasing the average age at infection. Consequently, many countries do not vaccinate against(More)
The use of mass immunization campaigns (MICs) has been and remains controversial. To evaluate these campaigns, the authors review the literature relating to their effectiveness, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness in controlling diseases and raising immunization coverage levels, and their impact on the subsequent development of routine immunization(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects most people by the time they are 2 years old and reinfects throughout life. RSV is best recognised for causing bronchiolitis in infants--it is one of the most important respiratory pathogens in childhood in industrialised countries. The clinical manifestations of RSV infection in adults and elderly people, from(More)