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The small heat shock protein HSP20 is known to be cardioprotective during times of stress and the mechanism underlying its protective abilities depends on its phosphorylation on Ser16 by PKA (protein kinase A). Although the external stimuli that trigger Ser16 phosphorylation have been well studied, the events that modulate spatial and temporal control of(More)
Cyclic adenosine 3,'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is the archetypal second messenger produced at the membrane by adenylyl cyclase following activation of many different G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) types. Although discovered over fifty years ago, the notion that cAMP responses were compartmentalised was born in the 1980s. Since then, modern molecular(More)
PKA (protein kinase A) is tethered to subcellular compartments by direct interaction of its regulatory subunits (RI or RII) with AKAPs (A kinase-anchoring proteins). AKAPs preferentially bind RII subunits via their RII-binding domains. RII-binding domains form structurally conserved amphipathic helices with unrelated sequences. Their binding affinities for(More)
The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death. The fundamental role that NF-κB plays in key physiological processes makes it(More)
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) tether protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to defined intracellular sites, thereby establishing compartmentalized cAMP signaling. AKAP-PKA interactions play key roles in various cellular processes, including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility. We discovered small molecules,(More)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a central second messenger controlling a plethora of vital functions. Studies of cAMP dynamics in living cells have revealed markedly inhomogeneous concentrations of the second messenger in different compartments. Moreover, cAMP effectors such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cAMP-activated GTP-exchange(More)
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) include a family of scaffolding proteins that target protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to cellular compartments and thereby confine the activities of the associated proteins to distinct regions within cells. AKAPs bind PKA directly. The interaction is mediated by the dimerization and docking domain of(More)
Seven patients underwent postoperative right heart catheterization implantation of the St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve in the tricuspid position. Six patients were in atrial fibrillation at catheterization, and 1 was in normal sinus rhythm. At postoperative catheterization, the mean right atrial pressure ranged between 4 and 16 mm Hg (mean, 9.7 mm Hg);(More)
Homeostatic control of oxygen availability allows cells to survive oxygen deprivation. Although the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is the main regulator of the hypoxic response, the upstream mechanisms required for its stabilization remain elusive. Here, we show that p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) undergoes hypoxia-induced(More)
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are highly specific and diverse. Their selective inhibition with peptides, peptidomimetics, or small molecules allows determination of functions of individual PPIs. Moreover, inhibition of disease-associated PPIs may lead to new concepts for the treatment of diseases with an unmet medical need. Protein kinase A (PKA) is(More)