Frank C. Walsh

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—Fuzzy logic is used to define a new quantity called the battery working state (BWS), which is based on both battery terminal voltage and state of charge (SOC), to overcome the problem of battery over-discharge and associated damage resulting from inaccurate estimates of the SOC. The BWS is used by a fuzzy logic energy-management system of a plug-in series(More)
This review considers the literature published since 1994 on microbial and enzymatic biofuel cells. Types of biofuel cell are classified according to the nature of the electrode reaction and the nature of the biochemical reactions. The performance of fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications is considered. The current(More)
SUMMARY The commercial development and current economic incentives associated with energy storage using redox flow batteries (RFBs) are summarised. The analysis is focused on the all‐vanadium system, which is the most studied and widely commercialised RFB. The recent expiry of key patents relating to the electrochemistry of this battery has contributed to(More)
The proton conductivity of a series of extruded Nafion membranes ͓of equivalent weight ͑EW͒ of 1100 and nominal dry thickness of 51, 89, 127, and 178 ␮m͔ has been studied. Measurements were made in 1 M H 2 SO 4 at 298 K using a four-electrode, dc technique. The membrane area resistance increases with thickness, as expected, from 0.07 to 0.16 ⍀ cm 2 for(More)
An illustrated review of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as an electrode material is presented. Early uses of RVC were largely restricted to small-scale (< 1 cm 3) electroanalytical studies in research laboratories. RVC properties of a high ratio of surface area to volume and minimal reactivity over a wide range of process conditions, combined with low(More)
A number of nickel based materials are investigated as potential oxygen evolution catalysts under conditions close to those met in modern, high current density alkaline water electrolysers. Microelectrodes are used to avoid distortion of voltammetric data by IR drop even at the high current densities employed in such water electrolysers. High surface area(More)
The fabrication of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) without carbon components is described; it is therefore suitable for use as a bifunctional oxygen electrode in alkaline secondary batteries. The electrode is fabricated in two stages (a) the formation of a PTFE-bonded nickel powder layer on a nickel foam substrate and (b) the deposition of a NiCo 2 O 4(More)
The limiting current is an important parameter for the characterization of mass transport in electrochem-ical systems operating under convective-diffusion control. Four methods to determine the limiting current from current (I) vs. potential (E) plots are considered. Strategies to determine the limiting current values include: (1) direct measurement from I(More)
A polymer electrolyte membrane ͑PEM͒ fuel cell model that incorporates chemical degradation in perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes is developed. The model is based on conservation principles and includes a detailed description of the transport phenomena. A degradation submodel describes the formation of hydrogen peroxide via distinct mechanisms in the(More)
A polymer-electrolyte fuel cell model that incorporates the effects of hydrogen sulfide contaminant on performance is developed. The model is transient, fully two-phase and non-isothermal and includes a complex kinetic mechanism to describe the electrode reactions. Comparisons between the simulation results and data in the literature demonstrate that known(More)