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A novel flow battery: A lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead(II) Part VIII. The cycling of a 10 cm × 10 cm flow cell Keywords: Flow battery Lead(II) ions Lead Lead dioxide Methanesulfonic acid Efficiency a b s t r a c t The design of a 10 cm × 10 cm flow cell for the soluble lead acid flow battery is described. A number of extended(More)
—Fuzzy logic is used to define a new quantity called the battery working state (BWS), which is based on both battery terminal voltage and state of charge (SOC), to overcome the problem of battery over-discharge and associated damage resulting from inaccurate estimates of the SOC. The BWS is used by a fuzzy logic energy-management system of a plug-in series(More)
Marine structures such as platforms, jetties and ship hulls are subject to diverse and severe biofouling. Methods for inhibiting both organic and inorganic growth on wetted substrates are varied but most antifouling systems take the form of protective coatings. Biofouling can negatively affect the hydrodynamics of a hull by increasing the required(More)
This review considers the literature published since 1994 on microbial and enzymatic biofuel cells. Types of biofuel cell are classified according to the nature of the electrode reaction and the nature of the biochemical reactions. The performance of fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications is considered. The current(More)
The proton conductivity of a series of extruded Nafion membranes ͓of equivalent weight ͑EW͒ of 1100 and nominal dry thickness of 51, 89, 127, and 178 ␮m͔ has been studied. Measurements were made in 1 M H 2 SO 4 at 298 K using a four-electrode, dc technique. The membrane area resistance increases with thickness, as expected, from 0.07 to 0.16 ⍀ cm 2 for(More)
A fuel cell operating with aqueous sodium borohydride and hydrogen peroxide streams, with one, two and four cells (electrode area 64, 128 and 256 cm 2) connected in a bipolar mode in a filterpress flow cell is reported. The oxidation of borohydride ion was carried out on Au/C particles supported on a carbon felt electrode while the reduction of hydrogen(More)
A transient modelling framework for a vanadium redox-flow battery (RFB) is developed and experiments covering a range of vanadium concentration and electrolyte flow rate are conducted. The two-dimensional model is based on a comprehensive description of mass, charge and momentum transport and conservation , and is combined with a global kinetic model for(More)
A number of nickel based materials are investigated as potential oxygen evolution catalysts under conditions close to those met in modern, high current density alkaline water electrolysers. Microelectrodes are used to avoid distortion of voltammetric data by IR drop even at the high current densities employed in such water electrolysers. High surface area(More)
SUMMARY The commercial development and current economic incentives associated with energy storage using redox flow batteries (RFBs) are summarised. The analysis is focused on the all‐vanadium system, which is the most studied and widely commercialised RFB. The recent expiry of key patents relating to the electrochemistry of this battery has contributed to(More)
An illustrated review of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as an electrode material is presented. Early uses of RVC were largely restricted to small-scale (< 1 cm 3) electroanalytical studies in research laboratories. RVC properties of a high ratio of surface area to volume and minimal reactivity over a wide range of process conditions, combined with low(More)