Frank C. Garland

Learn More
It is proposed that vitamin D is a protective factor against colon cancer. This hypothesis arose from inspection of the geographic distribution of colon cancer deaths in the U.S., which revealed that colon cancer mortality rates were highest in places where populations were exposed to the least amounts of natural light--major cities, and rural areas in high(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies, such as the Women's Health Initiative, have shown that a low dose of vitamin D did not protect against colorectal cancer, yet a meta-analysis indicates that a higher dose may reduce its incidence. METHODS Five studies of serum 25(OH)D in association with colorectal cancer risk were identified using PubMed. The results of all(More)
Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: Pooled analysis Cedric F. Garland a,∗, Edward D. Gorham a, Sharif B. Mohr a, William B. Grant b, Edward L. Giovannucci c, Martin Lipkin d, Harold Newmark e,f, Michael F. Holick g, Frank C. Garland a a University of California, San Diego, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0631C, La(More)
Blood samples taken in 1974 in Washington County, Maryland, from 25 620 volunteers were used to investigate the relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) with subsequent risk of getting colon cancer. 34 cases of colon cancer diagnosed between August, 1975, and January, 1983, were matched to 67 controls by age, race, sex, and month blood was taken. Risk(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate photosynthesis or oral intake of Vitamin D are associated with high incidence rates of colorectal cancer, but the dose-response relationship has not been adequately studied. METHODS Dose-response gradients from observational studies of Vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were plotted as trend lines. The point on each(More)
PURPOSE Higher serum levels of the main circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), are associated with substantially lower incidence rates of colon, breast, ovarian, renal, pancreatic, aggressive prostate and other cancers. METHODS Epidemiological findings combined with newly discovered mechanisms suggest a new model of cancer etiology(More)
This study is an analysis of the relationship between ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance, the primary source of circulating vitamin D in humans, and age-standardised incidence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children, according to region of the world. The association of UVB irradiance adjusted for cloud cover to incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in(More)
Sulfur dioxide absorbs ultraviolet light in the region of the spectrum which is most active in forming vitamin D on the skin. Sulfate particles reflect light at this wavelength. High concentrations of these pollutants (acid haze) may lead to vitamin D deficiencies in exposed populations. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a(More)
Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in reducing breast cancer risk. Lack of exposure to ultraviolet sunlight can increase the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency may place some populations at higher risk for breast cancer. The association between total average annual sunlight energy striking the(More)
BACKGROUND Sunscreens may allow overexposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) in fair-skinned persons and prevent symptoms of sunburn, but their benefits for the prevention of melanoma are uncertain. METHODS A PubMed search was performed that identified all known studies of the association of sunscreen use with melanoma risk during 1966-2007. A total of 18 studies(More)