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The serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are a superfamily of proteins (350 –500 amino acids in size) that fold into a conserved structure and employ a unique suicide substrate-like inhibitory mechanism. The serpins were last reviewed in 1994 (1). More recent studies show: 1) an expanded distribution within the kingdoms of metazoa and plantae, as well as(More)
Hemostasis and fibrinolysis, the biological processes that maintain proper blood flow, are the consequence of a complex series of cascading enzymatic reactions. Serine proteases involved in these processes are regulated by feedback loops, local cofactor molecules, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins). The delicate balance between proteolytic and(More)
The serine proteases sequentially activated to form a fibrin clot are inhibited primarily by members of the serpin family, which use a unique beta-sheet expansion mechanism to trap and destroy their targets. Since the discovery that serpins were a family of serine protease inhibitors there has been controversy as to the role of conformational change in(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a physiological inhibitor of urokinase (uPA), a serine protease known to promote cell migration and invasion. Intuitively, increased levels of PAI-1 should be beneficial in downregulating uPA activity, particularly in cancer. By contrast, in vivo, increased levels of PAI-1 are associated with a poor prognosis in(More)
Breast cancer is the most prominent cancer among females in the United States. There are a number of risk factors associated with development of breast cancer, including consumption of a high-fat diet and obesity. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a cytokine upregulated in obesity whose expression is correlated with a poor prognosis in breast(More)
Adipocytes express substances involved in both normal physiology and pathological processes. One such adipocyte protein is the Serpin (serine protease inhibitor) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). PAI-1 functions to inhibit urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) though PAI-1 itself is also implicated in breast cancer progression. While the role(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of tumor cell-associated coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways occurs in malignant disease processes, including breast cancer, and may promote metastatic activity. OBJECTIVES/METHODS To compare the coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways of normal and metastatic cells, we examined two cell lines from the MCF-10 family(More)
In hemostasis, the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) functions to stabilize clots via inhibition of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) with subsequent inhibition of fibrinolysis. In tissues, PAI-1 functions to inhibit extracellular matrix degradation via inhibition of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Elevated(More)
Protein C inhibitor (PCI), a plasma serine protease inhibitor, inhibits several proteases including the anticoagulant enzyme, activated protein C (APC), and the coagulation enzymes, thrombin and factor Xa. Previous studies have shown that thrombin and APC are inhibited at similar rates by PCI and that heparin accelerates PCI inhibition of both enzymes more(More)
Cancer patients often have an activated clotting system and are at increased risk for venous thrombosis. In the present study, we analyzed tissue factor (TF) expression in 4 different human pancreatic tumor cell lines for the purpose of producing derivative tumors in vivo. We found that 2 of the lines expressed TF and released TF-positive microparticles(More)