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The serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are a superfamily of proteins (350 –500 amino acids in size) that fold into a conserved structure and employ a unique suicide substrate-like inhibitory mechanism. The serpins were last reviewed in 1994 (1). More recent studies show: 1) an expanded distribution within the kingdoms of metazoa and plantae, as well as(More)
The inhibition of proteinase activity by members of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family is a critical regulatory mechanism for a variety of biological processes. Once formed, the serpin enzyme complexes (SECs) are removed from the circulation by a hepatic receptor. The present study suggests that this receptor is very likely the low density(More)
A rapid and convenient spectrophotometric assay has been devised to measure proteolysis. The assay is based on the reaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and 2-mercaptoethanol with amino groups released during proteolysis of a protein substrate. The reaction is specific for primary amines in amino acids, peptides, and proteins, approaches completion within 1 to(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of urokinase plasminogen activator, is paradoxically associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. PAI-1 is linked to several processes in the metastatic cascade. However, the role of PAI-1 in metastatic processes, which may be independent of protease inhibitory activity, is not fully understood.(More)
Hemostasis and fibrinolysis, the biological processes that maintain proper blood flow, are the consequence of a complex series of cascading enzymatic reactions. Serine proteases involved in these processes are regulated by feedback loops, local cofactor molecules, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins). The delicate balance between proteolytic and(More)
Biglycan and decorin are small dermatan sulfate-containing proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the artery wall. The dermatan sulfate chains are known to stimulate thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II (HCII), a plasma proteinase inhibitor that has been detected within the artery wall. The purpose of this study was to analyze the(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a physiological inhibitor of urokinase (uPA), a serine protease known to promote cell migration and invasion. Intuitively, increased levels of PAI-1 should be beneficial in downregulating uPA activity, particularly in cancer. By contrast, in vivo, increased levels of PAI-1 are associated with a poor prognosis in(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of tumor cell-associated coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways occurs in malignant disease processes, including breast cancer, and may promote metastatic activity. OBJECTIVES/METHODS To compare the coagulation and plasminogen activator pathways of normal and metastatic cells, we examined two cell lines from the MCF-10 family(More)
The coagulation and fibrinolytic systems contribute to malignancy by increasing angiogenesis, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. Oncogenic transformation increases the expression of tissue factor (TF) that results in local generation of coagulation proteases and activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2. We compared the(More)
Adipocytes express substances involved in both normal physiology and pathological processes. One such adipocyte protein is the Serpin (serine protease inhibitor) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). PAI-1 functions to inhibit urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) though PAI-1 itself is also implicated in breast cancer progression. While the role(More)