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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic disorder that occurs in patients with renal failure and manifests as a thickening of the skin and flexion contractures of the joints. The etiology may involve an exposure to a gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance contrast agent. It has been proposed that in hemodialysis (HD) patients, iron mobilization(More)
In certain double-blind clinical trials there is the possibility that certain 'marker variables' observable during the trial may in part unblind the trial, even at a subliminal level. At issue is whether or not this potential unblinding biases the investigators' clinical efficacy assessments. This issue arose after the completion of three clinical trials(More)
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