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For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe(More)
Mammalian beta-defensins are an important family of innate host defense peptides with pleiotropic activities. As a first step to study the evolutionary relationship and biological role of the beta-defensin family, we identified their complete repertoires in the human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, and dog following systemic, genome-wide computational searches.(More)
PR-39 is a proline-arginine-rich (PR) neutrophil antibacterial peptide originally identified and purified from the porcine small intestine. We report on the synthesis of a functional antibacterial domain of PR-39, the first 26 amino acid residues of the NH2 terminus. PR-26 was as potent as or more potent than PR-39 against enteric gram-negative bacteria.(More)
Three experiments, using 344 pigs, were conducted to evaluate the influence of beta-glucan on growth performance, neutrophil and macrophage function, haptoglobin production, and resistance to Streptococcus suis challenge in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 144 pigs were used to evaluate the influence of .1% dietary beta-glucan in a soybean meal- or milk(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are important host-defense molecules of innate immunity. Cathelicidins are a diverse family of potent, rapidly acting and broadly effective antimicrobial peptides, which are produced by a variety of cells. This review examines the classification, antimicrobial spectrum, mechanism of action, and regulation of cathelicidins.
An experiment was conducted to determine whether baby pigs develop hypersensitivity to dietary soybean proteins. Thirty-two pigs were orally infused with either dried skim milk (5 g/d; control) or soybean meal (48% CP; 5 g/d) from d 7 to 14 after birth. Sows were fed a corn-corn gluten meal-based diet supplemented with lysine and tryptophan to avoid(More)
Segregated early-weaned pigs (initially 4.0 kg and 14 +/- 1.5 d of age) were used to quantify the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune challenge and nursery diet complexity (complex, medium, and simple) on growth performance and haptoglobin production. Three treatments of immune challenge consisted of pigs given ad libitum access to feed(More)
The proline-arginine (PR) -rich antibacterial peptide, PR-39, kills bacteria by a non-pore-forming mechanism. Because this neutrophil peptide possesses several distinct functional properties and because other antimicrobial peptides are chemoattractants, we sought to determine whether PR-39 was a chemoattractant for porcine leukocytes. The peptide was(More)
We have previously demonstrated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAECs) and in isolated perfused rat lungs exposed to high K+ and during global lung ischemia. The present study evaluates the NADPH oxidase pathway as a source of ROS in these models. ROS production, detected by oxidation(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin elicits a broad, non-specific cascade of events in vivo, resulting in secretion of a variety of potent mediators and cytokines produced primarily by activated macrophages and monocytes. The overproduction of these effector molecules, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, contributes to the(More)