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The participation of gonadal steroid hormones in the regulation of the expression of the somatostatin gene in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex was studied by using a quantitative densitometric hybridization assay which allows the direct measurement of specific somatostatin mRNA levels. The levels of somatostatin mRNA in hypothalamus were found to be(More)
The telencephalic projections of the A8 dopamine cell group of the rat were assessed using both anterograde and combined retrograde-immunohistochemical methods. The projections of the A8 neurons onto the forebrain were more extensive than hitherto realized, and encompassed striatal, limbic, and allocortical regions. The A8 neurons were shown to contribute(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been suggested to play a role in lactation; indeed several studies implied that VIP induces the release of PRL in the pituitary. Quantitative RNA studies from our laboratory show an increase in the VIP messenger RNA (mRNA) content in the hypothalamus of lactating rats. The purpose of this investigation is to determine(More)
The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the mechanism of action of the anticonvulsant sodium valproate. The effects of valproate on spontaneous neuronal activity and its interaction with locally applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were assessed in the rat cerebral cortex. Extracellular neuronal potentials were recorded using standard(More)
The distribution of mRNA with high sequence homology to somatostatin mRNA within the periventricular hypothalamus of rat was assessed using in situ hybridization techniques with synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes, complementary to the 3' coding region of rat somatostatin mRNA. The probes (22- and 24-mers) were 5'-end labeled using T4 polynucleotide(More)
Individual neurons containing prosomatostatin mRNA were identified with in situ hybridization histochemistry. Our results demonstrate a widespread distribution of prosomatostatin mRNA in several regions of the rat central nervous system. Neurons containing this transcript were most abundant in the anterior olfactory nucleus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and(More)
Messenger RNA (mRNA) coding for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI-27) were localized in cortical and thalamic neurons with synthetic DNA probes complementary to the PHI-27 and VIP exon coding sequence of the rat VIP precursor gene. Hybridization signal with these probes was found widely distributed in the(More)
The discrete anatomical distribution of arginine vasopressin and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat hypothalamus is altered after adrenalectomy. Not only is the immunostaining of both peptides enhanced, but vasopressin immunoreactivity, normally confined to the magnocellular subdivision,(More)
Immunocytochemical studies have shown that adrenalectomy produces changes in the content and distribution of [arginine-8]vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether manipulation of adrenal hormones affects the levels of AVP mRNA. In situ hybridization assays with(More)
In situ hybridization histochemistry is a valuable technique for localizing specific messenger RNA (mRNA) and detecting changes in gene expression. Generally, the mRNA of interest has been detected by probes obtained from cloned DNA and labelled to high specific activity by nick translation. Such probes have a number of disadvantages which can be(More)