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Markov models are useful when a decision problem involves risk that is continuous over time, when the timing of events is important, and when important events may happen more than once. Representing such clinical settings with conventional decision trees is difficult and may require unrealistic simplifying assumptions. Markov models assume that a patient is(More)
Existing text-based clinical practice guidelines can be difficult to put into practice. While a growing number of such documents have gained acceptance in the medical community and contain a wealth of valuable information, the time required to digest them is substantial. Yet the expressive power, subtlety and flexibility of natural language pose challenges(More)
BACKGROUND The survival benefit of heart transplantation (HT) compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT) has never been tested. METHODS AND RESULTS We created a decision analytic model that simulates a randomized clinical trial of OMT versus HT for each New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. The simulation calculates average life expectancy. The(More)
The source for a patient's middle cerebral artery territory embolic stroke was found by echocardiography to be a left ventricular cardiac thrombus. The apical mass was large, pedunculated, and moved with systole into the ventricular cavity. The absence of ventricular dyskinesia was thought to favor a tumor, and surgery was considered before repeat(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify challenges, lessons learned and best practices for service-oriented clinical decision support, based on the results of the Clinical Decision Support Consortium, a multi-site study which developed, implemented and evaluated clinical decision support services in a diverse range of electronic health records. METHODS Ethnographic(More)
The encoding of clinical practice guidelines into machine operable representations poses numerous challenges and will require considerable human intervention for the foreseeable future. To assist and potentially speed up this process, we have developed an incremental approach to guideline encoding which begins with the annotation of the original guideline(More)