Frank A. Middleton

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The traditional view that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. One of the pivotal reasons for this reappraisal has been new information about basal ganglia and cerebellar connections with the cerebral cortex. In essence, recent anatomical studies have revealed that these(More)
The cerebellum is known to project via the thalamus to multiple motor areas of the cerebral cortex. In this study, we examined the extent and anatomical organization of cerebellar input to multiple regions of prefrontal cortex. We first used conventional retrograde tracers to map the origin of thalamic projections to five prefrontal regions: medial area 9(More)
The possibility that neurons in the basal ganglia and cerebellum innervate areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in cognitive function has been a controversial subject. Here, retrograde transneuronal transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) was used to identify subcortical neurons that project via the thalamus to area 46 of the primate(More)
The traditional view that the basal ganglia are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. Three lines of evidence indicate that the basal ganglia also are involved in nonmotor operations. First, the results of anatomical studies clearly indicate that the basal ganglia participate in multiple circuits or 'loops' with(More)
Parkinson's disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients with symptomatic Parkinson's and subclinical disease and healthy(More)
Microarray expression profiling of prefrontal cortex from matched pairs of schizophrenic and control subjects and hierarchical data analysis revealed that transcripts encoding proteins involved in the regulation of presynaptic function (PSYN) were decreased in all subjects with schizophrenia. Genes of the PSYN group showed a different combination of(More)
Complex defects in neuronal signaling may underlie the dysfunctions that characterize schizophrenia. Using cDNA microarrays, we discovered that the transcript encoding regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) was the most consistently and significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex of all schizophrenic subjects examined. The expression levels of ten(More)
In both genetic and idiopathic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), considerable evidence supports the involvement of alpha-synuclein, electron transport chain complex I, protein aggregation, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. To investigate alterations in the transcription of genes that comprise these pathways, we performed gene expression profiling and(More)
The basal ganglia are known to receive inputs from widespread regions of the cerebral cortex, such as the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Of these cortical areas, only the frontal lobe is thought to be the target of basal ganglia output. One of the cortical regions that is a source of input to the basal ganglia is area TE, in inferotemporal cortex.(More)
BACKGROUND The "Lister family complex," an extensive Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson disease, was first described by Henry Mjönes in 1949. On the basis of clinical, molecular, and genealogic findings on a Swedish and an American family branch, we provide genetic evidence that explains the parkinsonism in this extended pedigree. METHODS(More)