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The traditional view that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. One of the pivotal reasons for this reappraisal has been new information about basal ganglia and cerebellar connections with the cerebral cortex. In essence, recent anatomical studies have revealed that these(More)
The cerebellum is known to project via the thalamus to multiple motor areas of the cerebral cortex. In this study, we examined the extent and anatomical organization of cerebellar input to multiple regions of prefrontal cortex. We first used conventional retrograde tracers to map the origin of thalamic projections to five prefrontal regions: medial area 9(More)
The possibility that neurons in the basal ganglia and cerebellum innervate areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in cognitive function has been a controversial subject. Here, retrograde transneuronal transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) was used to identify subcortical neurons that project via the thalamus to area 46 of the primate(More)
The traditional view that the basal ganglia are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. Three lines of evidence indicate that the basal ganglia also are involved in nonmotor operations. First, the results of anatomical studies clearly indicate that the basal ganglia participate in multiple circuits or 'loops' with(More)
Complex defects in neuronal signaling may underlie the dysfunctions that characterize schizophrenia. Using cDNA microarrays, we discovered that the transcript encoding regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) was the most consistently and significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex of all schizophrenic subjects examined. The expression levels of ten(More)
We used retrograde transneuronal transport of the McIntyre-B strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 to examine the extent and organization of basal-ganglia-thalamocortical projections to five regions of prefrontal cortex in the cebus monkey (Cebus apella): medial and lateral area 9 (9m and 9l), dorsal and ventral area 46 (46d and 46v) and lateral area 12(More)
The basal ganglia are known to receive inputs from widespread regions of the cerebral cortex, such as the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Of these cortical areas, only the frontal lobe is thought to be the target of basal ganglia output. One of the cortical regions that is a source of input to the basal ganglia is area TE, in inferotemporal cortex.(More)
Microarray expression profiling of prefrontal cortex from matched pairs of schizophrenic and control subjects and hierarchical data analysis revealed that transcripts encoding proteins involved in the regulation of presynaptic function (PSYN) were decreased in all subjects with schizophrenia. Genes of the PSYN group showed a different combination of(More)
The level of cellular and molecular complexity of the nervous system creates unique problems for the neuroscientist in the design and implementation of functional genomic studies. Microarray technologies can be powerful, with limitations, when applied to the analysis of human brain disorders. Recently, using cDNA microarrays, altered gene expression(More)
OBJECTIVE Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing(More)