Frank A. J. L. Scheer

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STUDY OBJECTIVES To assess the wavelength-dependent sensitivity of the acute effects of ocular light exposure on alertness, performance, waking electroencephalogram (EEG), and cortisol. DESIGN A between-subjects design was employed to compare the effects of exposure to 460-nm or 555-nm light for 6.5 hours during the biological night. SETTING Intensive(More)
There is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps the result of physiologic maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. To begin to understand underlying mechanisms, we determined the effects of such misalignment(More)
The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is composed of thousands of oscillator neurons, each dependent on the cell-autonomous action of a defined set of circadian clock genes. Still, the major question remains how these individual oscillators are organized into a biological clock producing a coherent output able to time all the different(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the mammalian biological clock that generates the daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Light can phase shift the rhythm of the SCN but can also acutely affect SCN activity and output, e.g., output to the pineal. Recently, multisynaptic SCN connections to other organs were also demonstrated. Moreover, they were shown(More)
Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three(More)
Patients with essential hypertension have disturbed autonomic cardiovascular regulation and circadian pacemaker function. Recently, the biological clock was shown to be involved in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Our objective was to determine whether enhancement of the functioning of the biological clock by repeated nighttime melatonin intake might(More)
Sleep inertia is the impaired cognitive performance immediately upon awakening, which decays over tens of minutes. This phenomenon has relevance to people who need to make important decisions soon after awakening, such as on-call emergency workers. Such awakenings can occur at varied times of day or night, so the objective of the study was to determine(More)
The risk for cardiovascular incidents is highest in the early morning, which seems partially due to endogenous factors. Endogenous circadian rhythms in mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Recently, anatomical evidence has been provided that SCN functioning is disturbed in patients with essential(More)
STUDY DESIGN Case-controlled preliminary observational study. OBJECTIVE Melatonin is usually secreted only at night and may influence sleep. We previously found that complete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the neural pathway required for melatonin secretion. Thus, we investigated whether the absence of night time melatonin in cervical SCI(More)
The risk of adverse cardiovascular events peaks in the morning (≈9:00 AM) with a secondary peak in the evening (≈8:00 PM) and a trough at night. This pattern is generally believed to be caused by the day/night distribution of behavioral triggers, but it is unknown whether the endogenous circadian system contributes to these daily fluctuations. Thus, we(More)