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The use of 3-D multicellular spheroid (MCS) models is increasingly being accepted as a viable means to study cell-cell, cell-matrix and cell-drug interactions. Behavioral differences between traditional monolayer (2-D) cell cultures and more recent 3-D MCS confirm that 3-D MCS more closely model the in vivo environment. However, analyzing the effect of(More)
EBNA-1 is the only viral protein consistently expressed in all cells latently infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). There is a high frequency of sequence variation within functionally important domains of EBNA-1, with five subtypes identified. Individuals may be infected with multiple EBV strains (classified according to EBNA-1 subtype), but Burkitt's(More)
This paper reports the design and evaluation of a multi-electrode design that improves upon the statistical significance and spatial resolution of cellular impedance data measured using commercial electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) systems. By evaluating cellular impedance using eight independent sensing electrodes, position-dependent(More)
Screening a newly developed drug, food additive or cosmetic ingredient for toxicity is a critical preliminary step before it can move forward in the development pipeline. Due to the sometimes dire consequences when a harmful agent is overlooked, toxicologists work under strict guidelines to effectively catalogue and classify new chemical agents.(More)
Understanding the effect of exogenous substances on human skin is critical for toxicology assessment. To address this, numerous artificial models of the topmost layer of human skin, so-called reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), have been created in an attempt to produce a clear analogue for testing. Unfortunately, current testing modalities still rely on(More)
SUMMARY The hybrid Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique affords a robust means for sampling multidimen-sional probability density functions with high efficiency, provided one can calculate the gradient of ϕ = minus-log-probability in a time comparable to calculating the probability itself. The latter condition is met using the technique of adjoint(More)
Silica nanowires have great potential for usage in the development of highly sensitive in vivo biosensors used for biomarker monitoring. However, careful analysis of nanowire toxicity is required prior to placing these sensors within the human body. This paper describes a real-time and quantitative analysis of nanowire cytotoxicity using impedance(More)