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Temperature is a key factor in controlling the distribution of marine organisms and is particularly important at hydrothermal vents, where steep thermal gradients are present over a scale of centimetres. The thermophilic worm Alvinella pompejana, which is found at the vents of the East Pacific Rise (2,500-m depth), has an unusually broad thermotolerance(More)
Vestimentiferan tubeworms have no mouth or gut, and the majority of their nutritional requirements are provided by endosymbiotic bacteria that utilize hydrogen sulfide oxidation to fix CO(2) into organic molecules. It has been assumed that all vestimentiferans obtain the sulfide, O(2) and CO(2) needed by the bacteria across the plume (gill) surface, but(More)
Bathymodioline mussels occur in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems such as cold seeps, hydrothermal vents and organic debris worldwide. Their key adaptation to these environments is their association with bacterial endosymbionts which ensure a chemosynthetic primary production based on the oxidation of reduced compounds such as methane and sulfide. We herein(More)
Six morphotypes of small mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) were found attached to naturally sunken wood collected in the Bohol Sea (Philippines). These specimens are related to the large Bathymodiolus mussels that are found worldwide at cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. In these habitats, the mytilids harbour sulphur- and methane-oxidizing endosymbionts in(More)
The vent shrimps, Mirocaris fortunata and Rimicaris exoculata, live in a highly fluctuating thermal environment and undergo frequent temperature bursts. As a first step in the investigation of the response to heat stress, this work aimed to characterize stress proteins in these two species. Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) clones encoding a 70-kDa(More)
Osedax worms are whale-fall specialists that infiltrate whale bones with their root tissues. These are filled with endosymbiotic bacteria hypothesized to provide their hosts with nutrition by extracting organic compounds from the whale bones. We investigated the diversity and distribution of symbiotic bacteria in Osedax mucofloris from shallow-water(More)
We carried out a 16S rDNA-based molecular survey of the prokaryotic diversity associated with the chitin tubes of the giant vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila (collected at the East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees N and 13 degrees N). Scanning electron microscopy showed dense microbial populations, particularly on the external surface of the middle and upper tube(More)
A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated C1TLV30(T), was isolated from wood falls at a depth of 1693 m in the Mediterranean Sea. Cells were motile vibrios (2-4 × 0.5 µm). Strain C1TLV30(T) grew at temperatures between 15 and 45 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.4-8.6 (optimum 7.3). It required NaCl for growth (optimum at 25 g NaCl l(-1)) and tolerated up(More)
The cuticle collagen of the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila, an organism which is endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, has several unusual properties including an extraordinary length (1.5 microns), a high thermal stability (37 degrees C) in spite of a low 4-hydroxyproline content and an atypically high threonine content (20 mol%). We have now purified(More)
Dual endosymbioses involving methane- and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria occur in the gills of several species of mussels from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Variations of total and relative abundances of symbionts depending on local environmental parameters are not yet understood, due to a lack of reliable quantification of bacteria in the host(More)