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Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree), a source of limonoid insect growth regulatory (IGRs), grows well in many places in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the potential of neem wood and bark chippings in malaria vector control by evaluating their aqueous extracts as a larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) under(More)
BACKGROUND Biological control methods are once again being given much research focus for malaria vector control. This is largely due to the emerging threat of strong resistance to pesticides. Larvivorous fish have been used for over 100 years in mosquito control and many species have proved effective. In the western Kenyan highlands the larvivorous fish(More)
At six sites in western Kenya, we explored the presence of Anopheles immature stages in treeholes. An. gambiae larvae were found in 19 species, 13 of which are exotic. The most common exotic species were Delonix regia, Jacaranda mimosipholia, and Eucalyptus citrodora. In Kisumu city, longitudinal assessments of 10 Flamboyant trees showed repeated presence(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous malaria epidemics have occurred in western Kenya, with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. A variety of hypotheses on the etiology of these epidemics have been put forth, with different implications for surveillance and control. We investigated the ecological and socioeconomic factors promoting highland malaria vectors in the(More)
Fishponds become abandoned due to lack of access to both young fish and technical support and faster economic returns from other activities. Certain conditions found in abandoned fishponds, such as absence of fish and presence of aquatic vegetation, are conducive to the presence of malaria vectors. We conducted a district-wide fishpond census to determine(More)
The interactions between predator diversity and primary consumer abundance can include direct effects and indirect, cascading effects. Understanding these effects on immature Anopheles mosquitoes is important in sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases of malaria occur. Aquatic predators and immature mosquitoes were collected from shallow pools of varying age(More)
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