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The Bog Ecosystem Research Initiative (BERI) project was initiated to investigate, at five climatically different sites across Europe, the effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on the net exchange of CO2 and CH4 between bogs and the atmosphere, and to study the effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on the plant biodiversity of bog communities. A major(More)
Although cold hardiness is known to be a major determinant of tree species distribution, its dynamics and the factors that regulate it remain poorly understood. Variation in cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration, from dormancy induction until bud burst, were investigated in populations of two deciduous (Quercus robur L. and Quercus pubescens Willd.)(More)
Leaf expansion in the fast-growing tree, Populus x euramericana was stimulated by elevated [CO(2)] in a closed-canopy forest plantation, exposed using a free air CO(2) enrichment technique enabling long-term experimentation in field conditions. The effects of elevated [CO(2)] over time were characterized and related to the leaf plastochron index (LPI), and(More)
Observations on the net carbon exchange of forests in the European Mediterranean region, measured recently by the eddy covariance method, have revived interest in a phenomenon first characterized on agricultural and forest soils in East Africa in the 1950s and 1960s by H. F. Birch and now often referred to as the "Birch effect." When soils become dry during(More)
A rising global population and demand for protein-rich diets are increasing pressure to maximize agricultural productivity. Rising atmospheric [CO(2)] is altering global temperature and precipitation patterns, which challenges agricultural productivity. While rising [CO(2)] provides a unique opportunity to increase the productivity of C(3) crops, average(More)
The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths(More)
*The delay in autumnal senescence that has occurred in recent decades has been linked to rising temperatures. Here, we suggest that increasing atmospheric CO2 may partly account for delayed autumnal senescence and for the first time, through transcriptome analysis, identify gene expression changes associated with this delay. *Using a plantation of Populus x(More)
Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere(More)
In a free-air carbon dioxide (CO(2)) enrichment study (BangorFACE), Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were planted in areas of one-, two- and three-species mixtures (n = 4). The trees were exposed to ambient or elevated CO(2) (580 μmol mol(-1)) for 4 yr, and aboveground growth characteristics were measured. In monoculture, the mean effect(More)
Biochar has been recently proposed as a management strategy to improve crop productivity and global warming mitigation. However, the effect of such approach on soil greenhouse gas fluxes is highly uncertain and few data from field experiments are available. In a field trial, cultivated with wheat, biochar was added to the soil (3 or 6 kg m(-2)) in two(More)