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Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent form in resting CD4+ T cells. We measured the decay rate of this latent reservoir in 34 treated adults whose plasma virus levels were undetectable. The mean(More)
Antiretroviral drugs constitute a milestone in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, emerging problems limit their long-term use, and an increasing number of patients interrupt the prescribed continuous drug therapy for short or long periods. Some patients appear to benefit from structured treatment interruptions (STI),(More)
The tenacious effort to develop new, specific agents to treat HIV infection is currently accompanied by a reconsideration of existing drugs on the basis of their known or putative effects on the retroviral life cycle and/or the tuning of immune mechanisms. Three specific 'older' compounds that interfere with HIV infection by both a direct antiviral(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral DNA synthesis in quiescent and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was studied. Incomplete viral DNA (previously demonstrated to be associated with HIV-1 virions) is carried by HIV-1 virions into quiescent and activated PBLs, contributing to the formation of an early viral DNA pool in these cells.(More)
Combinations of drugs targeting viral proteins have been used to limit or control drug resistance, which is the most important cause of treatment failure in HIV-1-infected individuals. We suggest an alternative approach, namely to target cellular proteins, which are less prone to mutations than viral proteins. Here we show that simultaneous inhibition of a(More)
In a randomized controlled trial with acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, both highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART with fixed-schedule structured treatment interruption (STI-HAART; alternating 3 weeks on and 3 weeks off therapy) suppressed viral load. In the STI-HAART group, T cell virus-specific immune response(More)
During intrathymic T-cell ontogenesis, functionally competent CD3+CD4+CD8- and CD3+CD4-CD8+ T lymphocytes develop from immature CD4-CD8- thymocytes after transiently acquiring a double-positive CD4+CD8+ phenotype. The partition between CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ T cells is generally considered to be irreversible, although a small percentage of circulating CD3+ T(More)
Hydroxyurea, a drug widely used in therapy of several human diseases, inhibits deoxynucleotide synthesis--and, consequently, DNA synthesis--by blocking the cellular enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. Hydroxyurea inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) DNA synthesis in activated peripheral blood lymphocytes by decreasing the amount of(More)
Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), i.e. the combination of three or more drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has greatly improved the clinical outcome of HIV-1-infected individuals. However, HAART is unable to reconstitute HIV-specific immunity and eradicate the virus. Several observations in primate models and in humans(More)