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Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent form in resting CD4+ T cells. We measured the decay rate of this latent reservoir in 34 treated adults whose plasma virus levels were undetectable. The mean(More)
In a randomized controlled trial with acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, both highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART with fixed-schedule structured treatment interruption (STI-HAART; alternating 3 weeks on and 3 weeks off therapy) suppressed viral load. In the STI-HAART group, T cell virus-specific immune response(More)
During intrathymic T-cell ontogenesis, functionally competent CD3+CD4+CD8- and CD3+CD4-CD8+ T lymphocytes develop from immature CD4-CD8- thymocytes after transiently acquiring a double-positive CD4+CD8+ phenotype. The partition between CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ T cells is generally considered to be irreversible, although a small percentage of circulating CD3+ T(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral DNA synthesis in quiescent and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was studied. Incomplete viral DNA (previously demonstrated to be associated with HIV-1 virions) is carried by HIV-1 virions into quiescent and activated PBLs, contributing to the formation of an early viral DNA pool in these cells.(More)
Combinations of drugs targeting viral proteins have been used to limit or control drug resistance, which is the most important cause of treatment failure in HIV-1-infected individuals. We suggest an alternative approach, namely to target cellular proteins, which are less prone to mutations than viral proteins. Here we show that simultaneous inhibition of a(More)
Evidences have recently suggested that the preservation of vaccine-induced memory rather than effector T cells is essential for better outcome and survival following pathogenic SIV challenge in macaques. However, an equivalent demonstration in humans is missing, and the immune correlates of HIV-1 control have been only partially characterized. We focused on(More)
Hydroxyurea, a drug widely used in therapy of several human diseases, inhibits deoxynucleotide synthesis--and, consequently, DNA synthesis--by blocking the cellular enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. Hydroxyurea inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) DNA synthesis in activated peripheral blood lymphocytes by decreasing the amount of(More)
OBJECTIVE To reconstitute immune responses capable of eliminating infected cells and suppressing viral load during chronic retroviral infection. DESIGN : A topical, DNA-based therapeutic immunization (DermaVir) was designed to express most of the regulatory and structural viral genes in dendritic cells. METHODS DermaVir alone and in combination with(More)