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Structure-function relationships of the sodium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes have been investigated by the combined use of site-directed mutagenesis and patch-clamp recording. This study provides evidence that the positive charges in segment S4 are involved in the voltage-sensing mechanism for activation of the channel and that the region between(More)
The SS2 and adjacent regions of the 4 internal repeats of sodium channel II were subjected to single mutations involving, mainly, charged amino acid residues. These sodium channel mutants, expressed in Xenopus oocytes by microinjection of cDNA-derived mRNAs, were tested for sensitivity to tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin and for single-channel conductance. The(More)
Single-channel recordings of the currents mediated by the muscle Cl- channel, ClC-1, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, provide the first direct evidence that this channel has two equidistant open conductance levels like the Torpedo ClC-0 prototype. As for the case of ClC-0, the probabilities and dwell times of the closed and conducting states are consistent(More)
The oscillatory behavior of the cephalopod giant axons in response to an applied current has been established by previous investigators. In the study reported here the relationship between the familiar "RC" electrotonic response and the oscillatory behavior is examined experimentally and shown to be dependent on the membrane potential. Computations based on(More)
Asymmetric displacement currents, I g , associated with the gating of nerve sodium channels have been recorded in cell-attached macropatches of Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with exogenous mRNA coding for rat-brain-II sodium channels. The I g properties were found to be similar to those of gating currents previously observed in native nerve preparations.(More)
We have investigated the electrophysiological basis of potassium inward rectification of the KAT1 gene product from Arabidopsis thaliana expressed in Xenopus oocytes and of functionally related K+ channels in the plasma membrane of guard and root cells from Vicia faba and Zea mays. The whole-cell currents passed by these channels activate, following steps(More)
The use-dependent block of sodium channels by tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been studied in cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes expressing the alpha-subunit of rat brain IIA channels. The kinetics of stimulus-induced extra block are consistent with an underlying relaxation process involving only three states. Cumulative extra block induced by repetitive stimulations(More)
Tail currents through Na+ channels have been measured in inside-out patches from Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with cDNA-derived mRNA coding for the rat brain type II Na+ channel. It is shown that intracellular Mg2+ blocks outward currents in a voltage- and dose-dependent manner with a half blocking concentration between 3 and 4 mM at 0 mV and a voltage(More)
The voltage-gated potassium channel protein KvLQT1 (Wang et al., 1996. Nature Genet. 12:17-23) is believed to underlie the delayed rectifier potassium current of cardiac muscle together with the small membrane protein minK (also named IsK) as an essential auxiliary subunit (Barhanin et al., 1996. Nature. 384:78-80; Sanguinetti et al., 1996. Nature.(More)