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BACKGROUND Conflicting results in genetic studies of bipolar disorders may be due to the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Age at onset of bipolar disorders may be a key indicator for identifying more homogeneous clinical subtypes. We tested whether early onset and late onset bipolar illness represent two different forms of bipolar illness(More)
The human anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is active during conflict-monitoring tasks, is thought to participate with prefrontal cortices in a distributed network for conscious self-regulation. This hypothesis predicts that conflict-related ACC activation should occur only when the conflicting stimuli are consciously perceived. To dissociate conflict(More)
To explore the involvement of apolipoprotein E gene (APO E) in major depression, we studied the APO E gene polymorphism in a sample of 156 unrelated bipolar patients and 91 healthy volunteers. This population was stratified for age at onset of the affective disorder (onset before 18 years, after 45 years and between 18 and 45 years). Early onset bipolar(More)
Epidemiological and genetic data support the notion that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors. In our previous genome-wide association study, meta-analysis and follow-up (totaling as many as 18 206 cases and 42 536 controls), we identified four loci showing genome-wide significant association with schizophrenia. Here we consider a(More)
OBJECTIVE To test if specific correlations exist between cognitive measures and psychotic dimensions in schizophrenic subjects and if similar correlations, between cognition and schizotypal dimensions, are present in non-psychotic subjects. METHODS We administered the same battery of cognitive tests (Source Monitoring, Verbal Fluency [VF] and Stroop(More)
Attentional and executive impairments have been found both in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that they might be considered as familial vulnerability markers. Several studies have shown that the performance of bipolar patients does not significantly differ from that of schizophrenic patients, so that(More)
BACKGROUND A wide range of cognitive deficits have been demonstrated in schizophrenia, but their longitudinal course remains unclear. AIMS To bring together all the available information from longitudinal studies of cognitive performance in people with schizophrenia. METHOD We carried out a meta-analysis of 53 studies. Unlike previous reviewers, we(More)
To explore the involvement of serotonin transporter (5HTT) in mood disorder, we studied two polymorphisms of the 5HTT gene (a variable number of tandem repeats in the second intron (VNTR) and a 44 bp insertion/deletion in the 5HTT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)) in a sample of unipolar and bipolar patients and controls. Homozygosity for the short(More)
Failures to replicate results in psychiatric genetics might be due to our inability to define the heritable phenotype. Instead of relying entirely on classical nosographical approaches, the use of a candidate symptom approach to identify more homogeneous forms of diseases among affected subjects and subclinical traits among first-degree relatives may(More)
Abnormal dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be a key factor in the etiopathogeny of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Both schizophrenic and bipolar subjects have executive functions (EF) deficits, thought to reflect abnormal PFC function. The main inactivation pathways for dopamine in the PFC are enzymatic cleavage by the(More)