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We have developed ClueGO, an easy to use Cytoscape plug-in that strongly improves biological interpretation of large lists of genes. ClueGO integrates Gene Ontology (GO) terms as well as KEGG/BioCarta pathways and creates a functionally organized GO/pathway term network. It can analyze one or compare two lists of genes and comprehensively visualizes(More)
The role of the adaptive immune response in controlling the growth and recurrence of human tumors has been controversial. We characterized the tumor-infiltrating immune cells in large cohorts of human colorectal cancers by gene expression profiling and in situ immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the immunological data (the type, density, and(More)
BACKGROUND The role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the early metastatic invasion of colorectal cancer is unknown. METHODS We studied pathological signs of early metastatic invasion (venous emboli and lymphatic and perineural invasion) in 959 specimens of resected colorectal cancer. The local immune response within the tumor was studied by flow(More)
Tumours grow within an intricate network of epithelial cells, vascular and lymphatic vessels, cytokines and chemokines, and infiltrating immune cells. Different types of infiltrating immune cells have different effects on tumour progression, which can vary according to cancer type. In this Opinion article we discuss how the context-specific nature of(More)
PURPOSE The prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer has sometimes proved uncertain; thus, the prognostic significance of immune criteria was compared with that of the tumor extension criteria using the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer-TNM (AJCC/UICC-TNM) staging system. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied the(More)
The tumor microenvironment includes a complex network of immune T-cell subpopulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed the balance between cytotoxic T cells and different subsets of helper T cells in human colorectal cancers and we correlated their impact on disease-free survival. A panel of immune related genes were analyzed in 125 frozen(More)
Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases(More)
The complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment remain to be elucidated. Combining large-scale approaches, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of 28 different immune cell types (immunome) infiltrating tumors. We found that the immune infiltrate composition changed at each tumor stage and that particular cells had a major impact on(More)
PURPOSE Many patients who present with early-stage colorectal cancer (International Union Against Cancer TNM stages I and II) are nevertheless at high risk of relapse. We hypothesized that intratumoral immune reaction could influence their prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS The intratumoral immune reaction was investigated in 29 tumors by large-scale(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Colorectal cancer is a complex disease involving immune defense mechanisms within the tumor. Herein, we used data integration and biomolecular network reconstruction to generate hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying immune responses in colorectal cancer that are relevant to tumor recurrence. METHODS Mechanistic hypotheses were(More)