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We have developed ClueGO, an easy to use Cytoscape plug-in that strongly improves biological interpretation of large lists of genes. ClueGO integrates Gene Ontology (GO) terms as well as KEGG/BioCarta pathways and creates a functionally organized GO/pathway term network. It can analyze one or compare two lists of genes and comprehensively visualizes(More)
The role of the adaptive immune response in controlling the growth and recurrence of human tumors has been controversial. We characterized the tumor-infiltrating immune cells in large cohorts of human colorectal cancers by gene expression profiling and in situ immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the immunological data (the type, density, and(More)
Leukocyte infiltrates into or around tumor cell nests are found in the context of protumorigenic inflammation and anticancer immunosurveillance. Hence, the detailed composition, density, architecture, and function of leukocyte infiltrates must be analyzed to understand their prognostic impact. The ectopic presence within tumors of high endothelial venule(More)
The tumor microenvironment includes a complex network of immune T-cell subpopulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed the balance between cytotoxic T cells and different subsets of helper T cells in human colorectal cancers and we correlated their impact on disease-free survival. A panel of immune related genes were analyzed in 125 frozen(More)
Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases(More)
The American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system provides the most reliable guidelines for the routine prognostication and treatment of colorectal carcinoma. This traditional tumour staging summarizes data on tumour burden (T), the presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N)(More)
The outcome prediction in cancer is usually achieved by evaluating tissue samples obtained during surgical removal of the primary tumor focusing on their histopathological characteristics. Tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N), and evidence for(More)
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies, often presenting with a poor prognosis. To date, the anatomic extent of disease has been by far the most important prognostic factor. Recently, we obtained evidence that the type, density, and location of immune cells in colorectal cancer could provide a prognostic factor superior and independent to(More)
A role for the immune system in controlling the progression of solid tumors has been established in several mouse models. However, the effect of immune responses and tumor escape on patient prognosis in the context of human cancer is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cellular and molecular parameters that could describe in situ immune responses in(More)
Until now, the anatomic extent of tumor (TNM classification) has been by far the most important factor to predict the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. However, in recent years, data collected from large cohorts of human cancers demonstrated that the immune contexture of the primary tumors is an essential prognostic factor for patients' disease-free(More)