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Cell permeabilization by electric pulses (EPs), or electroporation, has been well established as a tool to indiscriminately increase membrane flows of water solutes down the concentration and voltage gradients. However, we found that EPs of nanosecond duration (nsEPs) trigger formation of voltage-sensitive and inward-rectifying membrane pores. NsEP-treated(More)
In vivo cell electroporation is the basis of DNA electrotransfer, an efficient method for non-viral gene therapy using naked DNA. The electric pulses have two roles, to permeabilize the target cell plasma membrane and to transport the DNA towards or across the permeabilized membrane by electrophoresis. For efficient electrotransfer, reversible undamaging(More)
Efficient DNA electrotransfer can be achieved with combinations of short high-voltage (HV) and long low voltage (LV) pulses that cover two effects of the pulses, namely, target cell electropermeabilization and DNA electrophoresis within the tissue. Because HV and LV can be delivered with a lag up to 3000 sec between them, we considered that it was possible(More)
The use of electric pulses to transfect all types of cells is well known and regularly used in vitro for bacteria and eukaryotic cells transformation. Electric pulses can also be delivered in vivo either transcutaneously or with electrodes in direct contact with the tissues. After injection of naked DNA in a tissue, appropriate local electric pulses can(More)
Gene electrotransfer is gaining momentum as an efficient methodology for nonviral gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, data suggest that electric pulses play two roles: structurally permeabilizing the muscle fibers and electrophoretically supporting the migration of DNA toward or across the permeabilized membrane. To investigate this further, combinations of(More)
It has been widely accepted that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) are distinguished from micro- and millisecond duration pulses by their ability to cause intracellular effects and cell death with reduced effects on the cell plasma membrane. However, we found that nsEP-induced cell death is most likely mediated by the plasma membrane disruption. We showed(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have raised great excitement during the last decade and are promising targets for an efficient treatment of tumors without relapses and metastases. Among the various methods that enable to enrich cancer cell lines in CSC, tumorspheres culture has been predominantly used. In this report, we attempted to generate tumorspheres from(More)
We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably(More)
Gene transfer by electroporation is gaining momentum now that high-level, long-term expression of transgenes is being obtained. Several different pulse regimens are efficient, yet little information is available about the physiological muscular response to gene electrotransfer. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the physiological and(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent nonhematopoietic cells with the ability to differentiate into various specific cell types, thus holding great promise for regenerative medicine. Early clinical trials have proven that MSC-based therapy is safe, with possible efficacy in various diseased states. Moreover, genetic modification of MSCs to improve(More)