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Structural changes in the gut microbial community have been shown to accompany the progressive development of colorectal cancer. In this review we discuss recent hypotheses on the mechanisms involved in the bacteria-mediated carcinogenesis, as well as the triggering factors favoring the shift of the gut microbiota from a mutualistic to a pro-carcinogenic(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated by the(More)
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome contributes significantly to host nutrition and health. However, relationships involving GI microbes, their hosts and host macrohabitats remain to be established. Here, we define clear patterns of variation in the GI microbiomes of six groups of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) occupying a gradation of(More)
The colonic mucus layer is comprised primarily of acidomucins, which provide viscous properties and can be broadly classified into sialomucins or sulfomucins based on the presence of terminating sialic acid or sulfate groups. Differences in acidomucin chemotypes have been observed in diseases such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, and(More)
Sulfur is both crucial to life and a potential threat to health. While colonic sulfur metabolism mediated by eukaryotic cells is relatively well studied, much less is known about sulfur metabolism within gastrointestinal microbes. Sulfated compounds in the colon are either of inorganic (e.g., sulfates, sulfites) or organic (e.g., dietary amino acids and(More)
Colonic gases are among the most tangible features of digestion, yet physicians are typically unable to offer long-term relief from clinical complaints of excessive gas. Studies characterizing colonic gases have linked changes in volume or composition with bowel disorders and shown hydrogen gas (H(2)), methane, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide to be(More)
Currently, standard protocols for microbial DNA extraction from intestinal tissues do not exist. We assessed the efficiency of a commercial kit with and without mechanical disruption. Better quality DNA was obtained without mechanical disruption. Thus, it appears that bead-beating is not required for efficient microbial DNA extraction from intestinal(More)
The metabolic activities of gut microbes significantly influence host physiology; thus, characterizing the forces that modulate this micro-ecosystem is key to understanding mammalian biology and fitness. To investigate the gut microbiome of wild primates and determine how these microbial communities respond to the host's external environment, we(More)
Hydrogenotrophic microbiota have a significant impact on colonic health; however, little is known about their diversity and ecology in situ. Here, molecular-based methods and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in 90 biopsies collected from right colon, left colon and rectum(More)
To understand how the gut microbiome is impacted by human adaptation to varying environments, we explored gut bacterial communities in the BaAka rainforest hunter-gatherers and their agriculturalist Bantu neighbors in the Central African Republic. Although the microbiome of both groups is compositionally similar, hunter-gatherers harbor increased abundance(More)