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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the(More)
To assess the long-term follow-up of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, six patients were evaluated every year by using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Three years postoperatively, GPi stimulation led to a significant improvement of dyskinesia severity (50%, P = 0.05) and activities of daily living (subscore of quality of(More)
PURPOSE To study changes of iron content in basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD) through a three-year longitudinal follow-up of the effective transverse relaxation rate R2*, a validated MRI marker of brain iron content which can be rapidly measured under clinical conditions. METHODS Twenty-seven PD patients and 26 controls were investigated by a(More)
Doubt, and its behavioural correlate, checking, is a normal phenomenon of human cognition that is dramatically exacerbated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation in the associative-limbic area of the subthalamic nucleus, a central core of the basal ganglia, improved obsessive-compulsive disorder. To understand the(More)
The common perception that Parkinson's disease patients tend to be depressed, anxious, apathetic and harm-avoiding has currently been challenged by the recognition that they can also exhibit a hedonistic, novelty-seeking personality. Thus, Parkinson's disease patients may indulge in their passions in an irresponsible and disinhibited manner, and engage in(More)
INTRODUCTION The severe, cortical, cholinergic depletion accompanying Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered as a highly probable correlate of cognitive and behavioural dysfunction. Recent studies have demonstrated that cholinesterase inhibitors (notably rivastigmine) are beneficial in patients suffering from dementia associated with PD (PDD). However, the(More)
The best current model of Parkinson's disease is the primate treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Quantification of animal movement is important for the study of severity of parkinsonian syndrome induced by MPTP and response to drug treatments. Both require clinical rating scales that measure motor behavior with well-defined(More)
The antiparkinsonian action of an NMDA receptor antagonist, magnesium sulfate (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), alone and in association with levodopa was explored in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned parkinsonian and control rhesus monkeys. At the three doses tested, magnesium sulfate decreased levodopa-induced dyskinesia [cumulative(More)
The impact of motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD), especially levodopa-induced dyskinesias, on quality of life (QL) was studied in 143 patients with PD. All were evaluated on the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scale, and the Motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Motor complications were analyzed using the UPDRS Parts IV(A)(More)
In this article, we briefly review the concept of brain mapping in stereotactic surgery taking into account recent advances in stereotactic imaging. The gold standard continues to rely on probabilistic and indirect targeting, relative to a stereotactic reference, i.e., mostly the anterior (AC) and the posterior (PC) commissures. The theoretical position of(More)