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The thalamic reticular nucleus (RTN) is the major source of inhibitory contacts in the thalamus and thus plays an important role in regulating the excitability of the thalamocortical network. Inhibition occurs through GABAergic synapses on relay cells as well as through GABAergic synapses between reticularis neurons themselves. Here we report that the role(More)
Understanding the endogenous repair capacity of spinal cord is pivotal to develop strategies to improve it. Here we design a paradigm of spinal cord lesion in the dorsal column using a 2-photon microscopy technique to dynamically and chronically monitor simultaneous changes of vascular and axonal networks in living mice up to 4 months postinjury.(More)
Odors evoke beta-gamma frequency field potential oscillations in the olfactory systems of awake and anesthetized vertebrates. In the rat olfactory bulb, these oscillations reflect the synchronous discharges of mitral cells that result from both their intrinsic membrane properties and their dendrodendritic interactions with local inhibitory interneurons.(More)
Repeated in vivo two-photon imaging of adult mammalian spinal cords, with subcellular resolution, would be crucial for understanding cellular mechanisms under normal and pathological conditions. Current methods are limited because they require surgery for each imaging session. Here we report a simple glass window methodology avoiding repeated surgical(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adult rodents is the standard experimental model for studying autonomic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we present a low-cost and reproducible glass window implantation protocol that is suitable for intravital microscopy and studying the dynamics of spinal cord cytoarchitecture with(More)
After spinal cord injury (SCI), resident and peripheral myelomonocytic cells are recruited to the injury site and play a role in injury progression. These cells are important for clearing cellular debris, and can modulate the retraction and growth of axons in vitro. However, their precise spatiotemporal recruitment dynamics is unknown, and their respective(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are highly invasive and angiogenic malignancies with a median survival time from diagnosis of <15 months. Previous work has revealed robust overexpression of fibronectin (FN) mRNA in GBM, although immunohistochemical staining of FN in these tumors is typically associated with the angiogenic vasculature. Here we sought to(More)
Drug delivery to the central nervous system is hindered by the presence of physiological barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. To accomplish the task of nutrient transport, the brain endothelium is endowed with various transport systems, including receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT). This system can be used to shuttle therapeutics into the central(More)
Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical and chemical(More)
The majority of intravital studies on brain tumor in living animal so far rely on dual color imaging. We describe here a multiphoton imaging protocol to dynamically characterize the interactions between six cellular components in a living mouse. We applied this methodology to a clinically relevant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model designed in reporter(More)