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A reductionist ecological approach of using a model genus was adopted in order to understand how microbial community structure is driven by metabolic properties. The distribution along an estuarine gradient of the highly specialised genus Methanosaeta was investigated and compared to the previously determined distribution of the more metabolically flexible(More)
Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is a perennial forage legume that possesses beneficial properties in the context of sustainable agriculture. In order to initiate a pre-breeding programme, we have assembled a germplasm collection of O. viciifolia from many geographic regions, as well as a collection of Onobrychis species that might be crossed with O.(More)
Sulfur is both crucial to life and a potential threat to health. While colonic sulfur metabolism mediated by eukaryotic cells is relatively well studied, much less is known about sulfur metabolism within gastrointestinal microbes. Sulfated compounds in the colon are either of inorganic (e.g., sulfates, sulfites) or organic (e.g., dietary amino acids and(More)
The colonic mucus layer is comprised primarily of acidomucins, which provide viscous properties and can be broadly classified into sialomucins or sulfomucins based on the presence of terminating sialic acid or sulfate groups. Differences in acidomucin chemotypes have been observed in diseases such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, and(More)
Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is a perennial forage legume that possesses beneficial properties in the context of sustainable agriculture. A germplasm collection of O. viciifolia was assembled from many geographic regions, as well as a collection of Onobrychis species that might be crossed with O. viciifolia to improve its biological and agronomic(More)
Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in(More)
A better understand the ecology of microbes and their role in the global ecosystem could be achieved if traditional ecological theories can be applied to microbes. In ecology organisms are defined as specialists or generalists according to the breadth of their niche. Spatial distribution is often used as a proxy measure of niche breadth; generalists have(More)
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