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Hox genes are essential for growth and patterning of the tetrapod limb skeleton. Mice mutant for the Hoxd-13 gene have an important delay in morphogenesis owing to reduced proliferation. Based on the appearance of atavisms in such mice, we suggested that modifications of Hox gene regulation may have been a source of morphological variation during the(More)
The variant specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes of T. brucei are expressed in telomeric expression sites. We have determined the structure of the active site in trypanosome variant 221a, which contains VSG gene 221, by analysis of cloned DNA segments that represent 65 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the VSG gene. In nuclear run-on experiments, 57 kb(More)
The stratum corneum as the outermost epidermal layer protects against exsiccation and infection. Both the underlying cornified envelope (CE) and the intercellular lipid matrix contribute essentially to these two main protective barriers. Epidermis-unique ceramides with ultra-long-chain acyl moities (ULC-Cers) are key components of extracellular lipid(More)
Here we report an approach to generate a knock-in mouse model using an 'ends-out' gene replacement vector to substitute the murine Parp-1 (mParp-1) coding sequence (32 kb) with its human orthologous sequence (46 kb). Unexpectedly, examination of mutant ES cell clones and mice revealed that site-specific homologous recombination was mimicked in three(More)
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