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We report in this study that, in the cerebellum, the pancreatic transcription factor Ptf1a is required for the specific generation of Purkinje cells (PCs) and interneurons. Moreover, granule cell progenitors in the external GCL (EGL) appear to be unaffected by deletion of Ptf1a. Cell lineage analysis in Ptf1a(Cre/Cre) mice was used to establish that, in the(More)
BACKGROUND Many reported associations between common genetic polymorphisms and complex diseases have not been confirmed in subsequent studies. An exception could be the association between NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and bladder-cancer risk. However, current evidence is based on meta-analyses of relatively small studies (range 23-374 cases)(More)
We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, we identified three new(More)
BACKGROUND Findings on water and total fluid intake and bladder cancer are inconsistent; this may, in part, be due to different levels of carcinogens in drinking water. High levels of arsenic and chlorinated by-products in drinking water have been associated with elevated bladder cancer risk in most studies. A pooled analysis based on six case-control(More)
Gastrulation in rodents is associated with an increase in the rate of growth and with the start of differentiation within the embryo proper. In an effort to understand the role played by the cell cycle control in these processes, expression of cyclin D1, D2, and D3--three major positive regulators of the G1/S transition--has been investigated by in situ(More)
Common genetic variation could alter the risk for developing bladder cancer. We conducted a large-scale evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for cancer to identify common variants that influence bladder cancer risk. An Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to genotype 1,433 SNPs within or near 386 genes in 1,086 cases and(More)
Extracellular signalling cues play a major role in the activation of differentiation programmes. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into a wide variety of specialized cells. Recently, protocols designed to induce endocrine pancreatic differentiation in vitro have been designed but little information is currently available(More)
Phenotypic heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of tumor lesions in patients with melanoma. Variability can be observed in cell morphology, pigmentation, and antigen expression. To test whether phenotypic heterogeneity could be the result of events regulated during cell differentiation, we evaluated the expression of a panel of differentiation traits(More)
Malignant transformation, invasion and angiogenesis rely on the coordinated reprogramming of gene expression in the cells from which the tumor originated. Although deregulated gene expression has been extensively studied at genomic and epigenetic scales, the contribution of the regulation of mRNA-specific translation to this reprogramming is not well(More)
Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological and genetic levels. Tumor invasiveness (T) and grade (G) are the main factors associated with outcome and determine patient management. A discovery exome sequencing screen (n = 17), followed by a prevalence screen (n = 60), identified new genes mutated in this tumor coding for(More)