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DNA sequence evolution through nucleotide substitution may be assimilated to a stationary Markov process. The fundamental equations of the general model, with 12 independent substitution parameters, are used to obtain a formula which corrects the effect of multiple and parallel substitutions on the measure of evolutionary divergence between two homologous(More)
Evidence from a broad panel of countries shows little overall relation between income inequality and rates of growth and investment. However, for growth, higher inequality tends to retard growth in poor countries and encourage growth in richer places. The Kuznets curve—whereby inequality first increases and later decreases during the process of economic(More)
A study of the lesions of beaked whales (BWs) in a recent mass stranding in the Canary Islands following naval exercises provides a possible explanation of the relationship between anthropogenic, acoustic (sonar) activities and the stranding and death of marine mammals. Fourteen BWs were stranded in the Canary Islands close to the site of an international(More)
The interactions among hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were studied by measuring HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA levels and by determining the influence of viral genotypes and mutations in HBV basal core promoter (BCP) and precore regions. We included 65 consecutive patients, 25 HBV/HCV, 18 HBV/HDV, and 22 HBV/HCV/HDV.(More)
Forest fires play a critical role in landscape transformation, vegetation succession, soil degradation and air quality. Improvements in fire risk estimation are vital to reduce the negative impacts of fire, either by lessen burn severity or intensity through fuel management, or by aiding the natural vegetation recovery using post-fire treatments. This paper(More)
It has been reported that the propagation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in cell culture generates viral subpopulations differing in protein p54 (C. Alcaraz, A. Brun, F. Ruiz-Gonzalvo, and J. M. Escribano, Virus Res. 23:173-182, 1992). A recombinant bacteriophage expressing a 328-bp fragment of the p54 gene was selected in a lambda phage expression(More)
The importance of the cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in marine ecosystems in terms of abundance and primary production can be partially explained by ecotypic differentiation. Despite the dominance of eukaryotes within photosynthetic picoplankton in many areas a similar differentiation has never been evidenced for these organisms. Here we(More)
Six naturally infected dogs [two with no signs of leishmaniasis ('asymptomatic'), two with a few signs ('oligosymptomatic') and two with many signs ('polysymptomatic')] were studied before and after chemotherapy. Another two, non-infected dogs were kept as controls. The dogs were studied clinically, haematologically and parasitologically five times over 11(More)
BACKGROUND The deleted GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes (null genotypes) resulting in loss of transferase activity are found in 10-20% and 50-60% of the population, respectively. PATIENTS AND METHODS The GSTT1- and GSTM1-dependent risk for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) was studied in 247 incident CRC cases and 296 hospital-based controls. RESULTS The(More)