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The chemokine IL-8 is known to be synthesized by glial cells in the brain. It has traditionally been shown to have an important role in neuroinflammation but recent evidence indicates that it may also be involved in rapid signaling in neurons. We investigated how IL-8 participates in rapid neuronal signaling by using a combination of whole-cell recording(More)
Some characteristics of ephaptic transmission of action potentials were investigated with squid giant axons. For these studies two isolated axons were placed side by side or, on occasion, a single long axon was looped to form an "ephapse" between the axon trunk and one of its main branches. Extracellular potentials measured adjacent to axons surrounded by a(More)
Studies of the interaction of anaesthetics with various preparations, from whole animals to organic solvents, have been continuing since Overton and Meyer found a correlation between anaesthetic potency and solubility in olive oil. Although the physiological basis of anaesthesia is far from clear, one popular hypothesis is that anaesthetics act primarily by(More)
Described are studies of propagation of action potentials through inhomogenous axon regions through experiments performed on squid giant axons and by computer simulations. The initial speed of propagation of the action potential is dependent upon the stimulus waveform. For a rectangular pulse of current, the action potential travel initally at a high speed(More)
Cable theory and active equivalent circuits have been used to simulate the propagation of action potentials along a single nerve or muscle fiber by representing the cell as a unidimensional cable composed of isopotential segments. We extended this method to a two-dimensional sheet of cells which in many ways represents the atrium. Our method consisted of(More)
This is the first in a series of four papers in which we present the numerical simulation of the application of the voltage clamp technique to excitable cells. In this paper we describe the application of the Crank-Nicolson (1947) method for the solution of the parabolic partial differential equations that describe a cylindrical cell in which the ionic(More)
The transverse tubular system (TTS) of skeletal muscle fibers represents the morphological basis for the inward spread of conduction of the electrical signal that triggers muscle contraction. A historical account of the main steps contributing to the elucidation of the structure and function of the TSS has been presented by Huxley (1971). While the(More)
Our previous studies demonstrated a diurnal rhythm in the response of gap junctions between crayfish giant axons to acidification and that the response was reduced after eyestalk ablation, sinus gland removal, or visual stress. In this paper we describe experiments to test whether compounds in the circulating hemolymph were responsible for modulation of the(More)
The effects of phloretin on membrane ionic conductances have been studied in the giant axon of the squid, Loligo pealei. Phloretin reversibly suppresses the potassium and sodium conductances and modifies their dependence on membrane potential (Em). Its effects on the potassium conductance (GK) are much greater than on the sodium conductance; no effects on(More)
We have developed a technique for cannulation and internal perfusion of crayfish segmented lateral axons. Experiments on perfused and non-perfused axons lead to the following conclusions: 1. Internally perfused segmented axons behave very similarly to non-perfused axons. 2. The axial electrical resistance of the junctional region is almost as low as a(More)