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Despite the crucial role that phytochromes (Phys) play in light perception and in the entrainment of the circadian clock to local time, the photoperiodic regulation of PHYA and PHYB gene expression has been poorly studied, especially in woody perennials. Here the dynamic of Vitis vinifera PHYA (VvPHYA) and PHYB (VvPHYB) transcript accumulation was studied(More)
Existing empirical studies are typically unable to sort out the direction of causality between poverty and violent crime in less developed countries. This study uses local rainfall variation – which is plausibly exogenous and closely related to income – to estimate the impact of negative income shocks on murder in 67 Tanzanian villages across eleven years.(More)
BACKGROUND Prosthetic repair has become the standard method for inguinal hernia and has excellent results. The question remains of whether the mesh technique could also improve results for umbilical defects. METHODS The study was a randomized clinical trial comparing herniorrhaphy (primary suture) with hernioplasty (polypropylene mesh or plug) in 200(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to compare the outcomes of advancement flap (AF) versus fistulotomy with sphincter reconstruction (FSR) for primary complex fistula-in-ano in terms of recurrence and anal function. METHODS A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare AF with FSR. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation included physical(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this prospective trial was to analyse the effectiveness and morbidity of chemical sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure after a 3-year follow-up. METHODS One hundred consecutive patients with chronic anal fissures were treated by chemical sphincterotomy with 25 U botulinum toxin injected into the internal sphincter.(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to compare the effectiveness and morbidity of surgical versus chemical sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure after a 3-year follow-up. METHODS Eighty patients with chronic anal fissure were treated by whether open lateral internal sphincterotomy (group 1) or chemical(More)
BACKGROUND Complex fistula-in-ano is a frequent source of concern for both patients and surgeons, because of its high rate of recurrence and postoperative anal incontinence. The objective of this study was to assess the results of fistulotomy with sphincter reconstruction in terms of recurrence and anal function. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a prospective(More)
Expression of peroxidase (Prx) RNA transcripts was studied in grapevine cv. Thompson seedless through use of semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In roots, the three Vitis vinifera Prx ESTs, reported in the genomic facility database from the University of California (http://cgf.ucdavis.edu), were expressed as RNA transcripts, and three Prx isoenzymes, two basic(More)
Biosynthesis of both ascorbic acid (AsA) and peroxidase activity were induced by light in cv. Sultana grapevine leaves. Induced peroxidase activity mainly involved basic isoenzymes of pI 9.8 and 9.6 and catalyzed the oxidation of flavonoids like quercetin and kaempferol and derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic and p-coumaric acids, but not(More)
It has been reported that dormancy-breaking compound hydrogen cyanamide (HC) stimulates the fermentative pathway and inhibits respiration in grapevine-buds, suggesting in this way, that a respiratory stress must be involved in the release of buds from dormancy. Here, we tested low-oxygen effect (hypoxia) on the bud-break response of endodormant grapevine(More)