Francisco Javier Ramirez Fernandez

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BACKGROUND Activated microglial cells have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and HIV dementia. It is well known that inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, and chemokines play an important role in microglial cell-associated neuron cell damage. Our(More)
Prevalence of HIV-associated cognitive impairment is rising. Amyloid-beta (A-beta) plaque deposition in the brain may be a contributing factor as epidemiological data suggests significant numbers of long-term HIV survivors are at elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). HIV-1 Tat-induced A-beta deposition, tau phosphorylation, and subsequent(More)
Although deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) as Abeta plaques involves activation of microglia-mediated inflammatory responses, activated microglia ultimately fail to clear Abeta plaques in the brains of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients or AD mouse models. Mounting evidence suggests that chronic microglia-mediated immune response during Abeta(More)
Recently, the term "inflammaging" was coined by Franceshci and colleagues to characterize a widely accepted paradigm that ageing is accompanied by a low-grade chronic up-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory responses. Inflammaging differs significantly from the traditional five cardinal features of acute inflammation in that it is characterized by a(More)
Recent studies have shown that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) possess antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, distinct from their action of lowering serum lipid levels. Moreover, results of epidemiological studies suggest that long-term use of statins is associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer's(More)
Microglial dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of a number of neurodegenerative disorders including HIV associated dementia (HAD). HIV promotion of an M1 antigen presenting cell (APC) - like microglial phenotype, through the promotion of CD40 activity, may impair endogenous mechanisms important for amyloid- beta (Aβ) protein(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of the central nervous system occurs in the vast majority of HIV-infected patients. HIV-associated dementia (HAD) represents the most severe form of HIV-related neuropsychiatric impairment and is associated with neuropathology involving HIV proteins and activation of proinflammatory cytokine circuits.(More)
Up to 50% of long-term HIV infected patients, including those with systemically well-controlled infection, commonly experience memory problems and slowness, difficulties in concentration, planning, and multitasking. Deposition of Aβ plaques is also a common pathological feature of HIV infection. However, it is not clear whether this accumulation is due to(More)
Brain aging is characterized by numerous physiological, structural, functional, and neurocognitive changes. The interplay of these various processes is complex and characterized by large interindividual differences. Although much is not understood about how we age, there are numerous studies detailing the nature of the changes in the brain as we age. This(More)
Up to 50% of long-term HIV infected patients, including those with systemically well-controlled infection, commonly experience memory problems and slowness, difficulties in concentration, planning, and multitasking. Deposition of Ab plaques is also a common pathological feature of HIV infection. However, it is not clear whether this accumulation is due to(More)