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The ventromedial hypothalamus is involved in regulating feeding and satiety behavior, and its neurons interact with specialized ependymal-glial cells, termed tanycytes. The latter express glucose-sensing proteins, including glucose transporter 2, glucokinase, and ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP) ) channels, suggesting their involvement in hypothalamic(More)
The GLUT2 glucose transporter and the K-ATP-sensitive potassium channels have been implicated as an integral part of the glucose-sensing mechanism in the pancreatic islet beta cells. The expression of GLUT2 and K-ATP channels in the hypothalamic region suggest that they are also involved in a sensing mechanism in this area. The hypothalamic glial cells,(More)
The subcommissural organ (SCO) is a brain gland whose secretory material is released into the cerebrospinal fluid where it condenses into a thread-like structure known as Reissner's fiber (RF). This fiber extends along the aqueduct, fourth ventricle and central canal of the spinal cord. The present investigation was designed to identify and partially(More)
Cell-to-cell metabolic interactions are crucial for the functioning of the nervous system and depend on the differential expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and supporting cells (SCs) of the olfactory epithelium exhibit a marked polarization and a tight morphological(More)
Agmatinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of agmatine into putrescine and urea, and agmatine (decarboxylated L: -arginine) plays several roles in mammalian tissues, including neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory actions in the brain. Injection of agmatine in animals produces anticonvulsant, antineurotoxic and antidepressant-like actions. Information regarding the(More)
We investigated whether the effect of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) was altered by a kinase inhibitor and by down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in order to determine if glycine receptors in mouse spinal neurons, unlike those in hippocampal and trigeminal neurons, can be inhibited by PKC. To examine the above, electrophysiological and(More)
Kinetic analysis of vitamin C uptake demonstrated that different specialized cells take up ascorbic acid through sodium-vitamin C cotransporters. Recently, two different isoforms of sodium-vitamin C cotransporters (SVCT1/SLC23A1 and SVCT2/SLC23A2) have been cloned. SVCT2 was detected mainly in choroidal plexus cells and neurons; however, there is no(More)
We used immunohistochemistry with anti-glucose transporter antibodies to document the presence of facilitative hexose transporters in the fetal human brain. GLUT1 is expressed in all regions of the fetal brain from ages 10 to 21 weeks. GLUT1 was present in the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries, the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and(More)
The sodium-vitamin C co-transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2 transport the reduced form of vitamin C, ascorbic acid. High expression of the SVCT2 has been demonstrated in adult neurons and choroid plexus cells by in situ hybridization. Additionally, embryonic mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons express the SVCT2 transporter. However, there have not been molecular(More)
Ascorbic acid (AA) is best known for its role as an essential nutrient in humans and other species. As the brain does not synthesize AA, high levels are achieved in this organ by specific uptake mechanisms, which concentrate AA from the bloodstream to the CSF and from the CSF to the intracellular compartment. Two different isoforms of sodium-vitamin C(More)