Francisco Javier Giráldez

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1. Intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) and membrane potential (Em) were measured in frog dorsal root ganglion neurones (DRG neurones) using double-barrelled Cl- -selective microelectrodes. In standard Ringer solution buffered with HEPES (5 mM), equilibrated with air or 100% O2, the resting membrane potential was -57.7 +/- 1.0 mV and aiCl was 23.6 +/- 1.0 mM(More)
The trkB and trkC genes are expressed during the formation of the vestibular and auditory system. To elucidate the function of trkB and trkC during this process, we have analysed mice carrying a germline mutation in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain of these genes. Neuroanatomical analysis of homozygous mutant mice revealed neuronal deficiencies in the(More)
The development of neural tissue starts with the activation of early neural genes such as the SoxB1 transcription factors, which are expressed in response to signaling molecules. Neural progenitors in the inner ear are only generated in the anterior placodal domain, but the mechanisms that determine when and how otic neural fate is acquired are still(More)
The effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on the differentiation of avian cochleovestibular ganglion and their possible association with the hydrolysis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) were studied. BDNF and NT-3 (2 ng/ml) promoted neurite outgrowth in explants of both cochlear and vestibular ganglia. This(More)
The int-2 proto-oncogene encodes several products related to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGFs have been associated with mesoderm induction in the amphibian embryo and int-2 has a distinct pattern of expression throughout development in vertebrates. But evidence for a function of int-2 in embryo-genesis has been lacking. In the mouse embryo,(More)
Loss-of-function experiments in avians and mammals have provided conflicting results on the capacity of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) to act as a secreted growth factor responsible for induction and morphogenesis of the vertebrate inner ear. Using a novel technique for gene transfer into chicken embryos, we have readdressed the role of FGF3 during inner(More)
1. The afferent responses evoked by mechanical and thermal stimulation of the cat cornea were recorded extracellularly from strands of long and mixed ciliary nerves under deep anaesthesia. 94% of the units studied (n = 53) responded consistently to both stimuli. 2. Conduction velocities, measured by electrical stimulation of the receptive field,(More)
LIM homeodomain genes have been involved in patterning in a variety of organisms. I have analyzed the expression of lmx1 during early ear development and explored its regulation by the neuroectoderm. Experiments were carried out on chick embryos. During early somitic stages (4-6 somites), lmx1 was expressed in the neural tube and in a stripe of the dorsal(More)
This experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of quebracho tannin extract (containing 760 g of condensed tannins [CTs] per kg), with the aim of validating its use as a feed additive for improving the digestive utilization of protein-rich feeds. Four groups (Q(0), Q(1), Q(2) and Q(3)) of four sheep were dosed intra-ruminally once daily, for up to 21(More)