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Buchnera is a mutualistic intracellular symbiont of aphids. Their association began about 200 million years ago, with host and symbiont lineages evolving in parallel since that time. During this coevolutionary process, Buchnera has experienced a dramatic decrease of genome size, retaining only essential genes for its specialized lifestyle. Previous studies(More)
The evolution of the endosymbiont Buchnera during its adaptation to intracellular life involved a massive reduction in its genome. By comparing the orthologous genes of Buchnera, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae, we show that the minimal genome size of Buchnera arose from multiple events of gene disintegration dispersed over the whole genome. The(More)
A Cre recombinase expression cassette was inserted into the X-linked Hprt locus by gene targeting in a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line isogenic to strain 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), then the transgene was introduced into 129S1 mice through ES cell chimeras. When females hemizygous for this transgene were mated to males carrying a neomycin selection cassette(More)
Evolution of pest resistance to insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) would decrease our ability to control agricultural pests with genetically engineered crops designed to express genes coding for these proteins. Previous genetic and biochemical analyses of insect strains with resistance to Bt toxins indicate that (i) resistance is(More)
Genome rearrangements have been studied in 30 gamma-proteobacterial complete genomes by comparing the order of a reduced set of genes on the chromosome. This set included those genes fulfilling several characteristics, the main ones being that an ortholog was present in every genome and that none of them had been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Genome(More)
We have developed three strategies to discriminate among the three types of tRNA genes with anticodon CAT (tRNA(Ile), elongator tRNA(Met) and initiator tRNA(fMet)) in bacterial genomes. With these strategies, we have classified the tRNA genes from 234 bacterial and several organellar genomes. These sequences, in an aligned or unaligned format, may be used(More)
Symbiotic associations between animals and microbes are ubiquitous in nature, with an estimated 15% of all insect species harboring intracellular bacterial symbionts. Most bacterial symbionts share many genomic features including small genomes, nucleotide composition bias, high coding density, and a paucity of mobile DNA, consistent with long-term host(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding evolutionary processes that drive genome reduction requires determining the tempo (rate) and the mode (size and types of deletions) of gene losses. In this study, we analysed five endosymbiotic genome sequences of the gamma-proteobacteria (three different Buchnera aphidicola strains, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Blochmannia(More)
Intracellular bacteria are characterized by genome reduction. The 422,434-base pair genome of Buchnera aphidicola BCc, primary endosymbiont of the aphid Cinara cedri, is approximately 200 kilobases smaller than the previously sequenced B. aphidicola genomes. B. aphidicola BCc has lost most metabolic functions, including the ability to synthesize the(More)
A approximately 2.4-kb imprinting control region (ICR) regulates somatic monoallelic expression of the Igf2 and H19 genes. This is achieved through DNA methylation-dependent chromatin insulator and promoter silencing activities on the maternal and paternal chromosomes, respectively. In somatic cells, the hypomethylated maternally inherited ICR binds the(More)