Francisco J. Maldonado-Arocho

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Type III secretion systems deliver effector proteins from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens into host cells, where they disarm host defences, allowing the pathogens to establish infection. Although Yersinia pseudotuberculosis delivers its effector proteins, called Yops, into numerous cell types grown in culture, we show that during infection Y.(More)
Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are tripartite protein exotoxins produced by a diverse group of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Based on their ability to induce DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of cultured cells, CDTs are proposed to enhance virulence by blocking cellular division and/or directly killing epithelial and immune cells.(More)
The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) compose a subclass of intracellularly acting genotoxins produced by many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria that disrupt the normal progression of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, the intoxication mechanisms of CDTs from Escherichia coli (Ec-CDT) and Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT), which share limited amino acid sequence(More)
Initiation of inhalation anthrax is believed to involve phagocytosis of Bacillus anthracis spores by alveolar macrophages, followed by spore germination within the phagolysosome. In order to establish a systemic infection, it is predicted that bacilli then escape from the macrophage and replicate extracellularly. Mechanisms utilized by B. anthracis to(More)
Bacillus anthracis secretes two bipartite toxins, edema toxin (ET) and lethal toxin (LT), which impair immune responses and contribute directly to the pathology associated with the disease anthrax. Edema factor, the catalytic subunit of ET, is an adenylate cyclase that impairs host defenses by raising cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. Synthetic cAMP(More)
Yersinia delivers Yops into numerous types of cultured cells, but predominantly into professional phagocytes and B cells during animal infection. The basis for this cellular tropism during animal infection is not understood. This work demonstrates that efficient and specific Yop translocation into phagocytes by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) is a(More)
A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) murine model of lung infection was previously developed using the serotype III IP2666NdeI strain, which robustly colonized lungs but only sporadically disseminated to the spleen and liver. We demonstrate here that a serotype Ib Yptb strain, IP32953, colonizes the lungs at higher levels and disseminates more efficiently(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes two bipartite toxins that help the bacterium evade the immune system and contribute directly to pathogenesis. Both toxin catalytic moieties, lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (OF), are internalized into the host-cell cytosol by a third factor, protective antigen (PA), which binds to cellular(More)
Anthrax edema toxin (ET) is one of two binary toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis that contributes to the virulence of this pathogen. ET is an adenylate cyclase that generates high levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP), causing alterations in multiple host cell signaling pathways. We previously demonstrated that ET increases cell surface expression of the anthrax(More)
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