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Simple phylogenetic tests were applied to a large data set of nucleotide sequences from two nuclear genes and a region of the mitochondrial genome of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease. Incongruent gene genealogies manifest genetic exchange among distantly related lineages of T. cruzi. Two widely distributed isoenzyme types of T. cruzi are(More)
DNA sequence variation in a 1410-bp region including the Cu,Zn Sod locus was examined in 41 homozygous lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Fourteen lines were from Barcelona, Spain, 25 were from California populations and the other two were from laboratory stocks. Two common electromorphs, SODS and SODF, are segregating in the populations. Our sample of 41(More)
Theories of density-dependent natural selection state that at extreme population densities evolution produces alternative life histories due to trade-offs. The trade-offs are presumed to arise because those genotypes with highest fitness at high population densities will not also have high fitness at low density and vice-versa. These predictions were tested(More)
Drosophila species are extensively used in biological research; yet, important phylogenetic relationships within the genus and with related genera remain unresolved. The combined data for three genes (Adh, Sod, and Gpdh) statistically resolves outstanding issues. We define the genus Drosophila inclusively so as to include Scaptomyza and Zaprionus(More)
The relative merits of molecular and paleontological dates of major branching points in the tree of life are currently debated. In some cases, molecular date estimates are up to twice as old as paleontological dates. However, although it is true that paleontological dates are often too young (missing fossils), molecular dates are often too old (statistical(More)
The time of origin of the animal phyla is controversial. Abundant fossils from the major animal phyla are found in the Cambrian, starting 544 million years ago. Many paleontologists hold that these phyla originated in the late Neoproterozoic, during the 160 million years preceding the Cambrian fossil explosion. We have analyzed 18 protein-coding gene loci(More)
There is presently a conflict between fossil- and molecular-based evolutionary time scales. Molecular approaches for dating the branches of the tree of life frequently lead to substantially deeper times of divergence than those inferred by paleontologists. The discrepancy between molecular and fossil estimates persists despite the booming growth of sequence(More)
The phylogeny and taxonomy of the drosophilids have been the subject of extensive investigations. Recently, Grimaldi (1990) has challenged some common conceptions, and several sets of molecular data have provided information not always compatible with other taxonomic knowledge or consistent with each other. We present the coding nucleotide sequence of the(More)
1 Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975) was one of the principal architects of the so-called synthetic theory of evolution. 2 Born and initially trained in Russia, where he became an entomologist and zoologist with wide-ranging interests, he brought a rich background in systematics and study of natural populations with him when he came to the United States to(More)
The capacity to appreciate beauty is one of our species' most remarkable traits. Although knowledge about its neural correlates is growing, little is known about any gender-related differences. We have explored possible differences between men and women's neural correlates of aesthetic preference. We have used magnetoencephalography to record the brain(More)