Francisco J. Ayala

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There is presently a conflict between fossil- and molecular-based evolutionary time scales. Molecular approaches for dating the branches of the tree of life frequently lead to substantially deeper times of divergence than those inferred by paleontologists. The discrepancy between molecular and fossil estimates persists despite the booming growth of sequence(More)
We have investigated nucleotide polymorphism at the esterase 6 gene (Est-6) gene, including the complete coding region (1686 bp), as well as the 5'-flanking (1183 bp) and 3'-flanking (193 bp) regions of the gene, in 30 strains of Drosophila melanogaster and in one strain of Drosophila simulans. The level of silent variation is similar in the coding and in(More)
The capacity to appreciate beauty is one of our species' most remarkable traits. Although knowledge about its neural correlates is growing, little is known about any gender-related differences. We have explored possible differences between men and women's neural correlates of aesthetic preference. We have used magnetoencephalography to record the brain(More)
Articles E cological communities comprise complex networks of individuals interacting with each other and with their environment. Two major challenges for scientists, managers, and policymakers are (1) understanding the forces that organize these heterogeneous systems across space and time (Levin 1992, Levin et al. 1997, Brown et al. 2002) and (2) using(More)
Efforts to understand the genetic basis of evolutionary change have concentrated on proteins and their encoding DNA sequences. These studies have brought to light patterns and processes at the nucleotide level, yet the complex functional relationships between genetic variants and phenotypes remain poorly known. The realization that even a complete(More)
Tandemly arranged paralogous genes lbe and lbl are members of the Drosophila NK homeobox family. We analyzed population samples of Drosophila melanogaster from Africa, Europe, North and South America, and single strains of D. sechellia, D. simulans, and D. yakuba within two linked regions encompassing partial sequences of lbe and lbl. The evolution of lbe(More)
We examine the pattern of molecular evolution of the beta-esterase gene cluster, including the Est-6 and psiEst-6 genes, in eight species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Using maximum likelihood estimates of nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratios, we show that the majority of Est-6 sites evolves under strong (48% of sites) or moderate (50% of sites)(More)
An abundant literature dealing with the population genetics and taxonomy of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Pneumocystis spp., and Cryptococcus spp., pathogens of high medical and veterinary relevance, has been produced in recent years. We have analyzed these data in the light of new population genetic concepts dealing with predominant clonal(More)
Saccharina japonica (Areschoug) Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is an economically important and highly morphologically variable brown alga inhabiting the northwest Pacific marine waters. On the basis of nuclear (ITS), plastid (rbcLS) and mitochondrial (COI) DNA sequence data, we have analyzed the genetic composition of typical Saccharina japonica (TYP) and(More)
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a major evolutionary mechanism in prokaryotes. Knowledge about LGT--particularly, multicellular--eukaryotes has only recently started to accumulate. A widespread assumption sees the gene as the unit of LGT, largely because little is yet known about how LGT chances are affected by structural/functional features at the subgenic(More)